Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland

Since the Milesian Conquest

Names of the one hundred and eighty-four Kings [1] or Monarchs of Ireland, from the conquest thereof by the Milesian or Scottish Nation, Anno Mundi, 3,500, down to Roderick O'Connor, the Monarch of Ireland, A.D. 1186: a period which embraces two thousand eight hundred and eighty-five years. The date opposite each name tells the year in which the Monarch began to reign:—

Before Christ
1.H. Heber and Heremon, jointly, began to reign A.M. 3,500; or1699
2.E. Heremon, alone,1698
3.E. Muimne}
4.E. Luighne} Three brothers1683
5.E. Laighean}
6.H. Er}
7.H. Orba}
8.H. Feron} Four brothers1680
9.H. Fergna}
10.E. Irial Faidh,1680
11.E. Eithrial,1670
12.H. Conmaol,1650
13.E. Tighearnmas,1620
14.L. Eochaidh Edghothach,1543
15.I. Cearmna}
16.I. Sobhrach} Brothers1532
17.H. Eochaidh Faobhar-glas,1492
18.E. Fiacha Lamhraein,1472
19.H. Eochaidh Mumha,1448
20.E. Aongus (or Æneas) Ollmucach,1427
21.H. Eanna Airgthach,1409
22.E. Rotheacta,1382
23.I. Seidnae,1357
24.I. Fiacha Fionn-Scothach,1352
25.H. Munmoin,1332
26.H. Fualdergoid,1327
27.I. Ollamh Fodhla, A.M. 3882,1317
28.I. Finachta Fionn-sneachta,1277
29.I. Slanoll,1257
30.I. Gead Ollghothach,1240
31.I. Fiacha (3),1228
32.I. Bergna,1208
33.I. Olioll,1196
34.E. Siorghnath Saoghalach; lived 250 years, and reigned 150 years,1180
35.H. Rotheacta (2),1030
36.H. Eiliomh,1023
37.E. Giallcadh,1022
38.H. Art Imleach,1013
39.E. Nuadhas Fionnfail,1001
40.H. Breas Rioghachta,961
41.L. Eochaidh Apach,952
42.I. Fionn,951
43.H. Seidnae Innaraidh,929
44.E. Simeon Breac,909
45.H. Duach Fionn, ...903
46.E. Muireadach Bolgach,893
47.H. Eanna Dearg, ...892
48.H. Lughaidh Iardhonn,880
49.I. Siorlamhach,871
50.H. Eochaidh Uarceas,855
51.E. Eochaidh (Brother of No. 53),843
52.H. Lughaidh Lamhdearg,838
53.E. Conang Beag-eaglach,831
54.H. Art (2),811
55.E. Fiacha Tolgrach805
56.H. Olioll Fionn,795
57.H. Eochaidh (7)784
58.I. Argethamar,777
59.E. Duach Ladhrach,747
60.H. Lughaidh Lagha,737
61.I. Aodh Ruadh,}
62.I. Dithorba,}730
63.I. Cimbath.}

These three, Nos. 61, 62, and 63, were grandchildren of Argethamar, No. 58; and they mutually agreed to reign by turns, each of them for seven years. They accordingly ruled until each of them reigned three times seven years; and Aodh Ruadh (No. 61), before it came to his fourth turn to reign, was drowned at Eas Ruadh [Easroe], now Ballyshannon, in the county Donegal (eas: Irish, a cataract; Heb. eshed. a pouring of water), leaving issue one daughter named Macha Mongrua, who succeeded to the Monarchy.

Before Christ
64.I. Macha Mongrua (that daughter),667
65.H. Reacht Righ-dearg,653
66.E. Ugaine Mor (Hugony the Great),633
67.E. Bancadh (survived his elevation to the Monarchy only one day),593
68.E. Laeghaire Lorc,593
69.E. Cobthach Caoil-bhreagh,591
70.E. Labhra Longseach,541
71.E. Melg Molbhthach,522
72.H. Moghcorb,505
73.E. Æneas Ollamh,498
74.E. Iarn Gleofathach,480
75.H. Fearcorb,473
76.E. Conla Caomh,462
77.E. Olioll Casfiacalach,442
78.H. Adhamhair Foltchaion,417
79.E. Eochaidh Altleathan,412
80.E. Fergus Fortamhail,397
81.E. Æneas Turmeach-Teamreach,384
82.E. Conall Collaimrach,324
83.H. Niadhsedhaman,319
84.E. Eanna Aigneach,312
85.E. Crimthann Cosgrach,292
86.I. Ruadhri Mor (a quo "Clan-na-Rory"),288
87.H. Ionadmaor,218
88.I. Bresal Bodhiobha,209
89.H. Lughaidh Luaighne,198
90.I. Congall Clareineach,183
91.H. Duach Dalladh-Deadha,168
92.I. Fachna Fathach,158
93.E. Eochaidh Feidlioch,142
94.E. Eochaidh Aireamh,130
95.E. Edersceal,115
96.E. Nuadhas Neacht,110
97.E. Conaire Mor,109
After the death of Conaire Mor, there was an Interregnum of five years.
98.E. Lughaidh Sriabh n-Dearg,34
99.E. Conchobhair,8
100.E. Crimthann Niadh-Nar,7
In the seventh year of this Crimthann's reign, our Lord Jesus Christ was born.
Anno Domini
101.— Cairbre Cean-cait [2] (of the Firbolg race),9
102.E. Fearadach Fionnfeachtnach,14
103.E. Fiatach Fionn (a quo "Dal Fiatach "),36
104.E. Fiacha Fionn-Ola,39
105.I. Eiliomh MacConrach,56
106.E. Tuathal Teachtmar,76
107.I. Mal MacRochraidhe,106
108.E. Felim Rachtmar,110
109.E. Cathair Mor,119
110.E. Conn Ceadcatha,123
111.E. Conaire MacMogha Laine,157
112.E. Art Eanfhear [3] (ancestor of O'Hart),165
113.L. Lughaidh Maccon,195
114.E. Fergus Dubh-Dheadach,225
115.E. Cormac Mac Art (or Cormac Ulfada),226
116.E. Eochaidh Gunta,266
117.E. Cairbre Liffechar,267
118.L. Fothadh Airgtheach}
119.L. Fothadh Cairpeach} Brothers,284
120.E. Fiacha Srabhteine (ancestor of O'Neill),285
121.E. Colla Uais (ancestor of Mac Uais),322
122.E. Muireadach Tireach,326
123.I. Caolbadh,356
124.E. Eochaidh Muigh Meadhoin,357
125.H. Crimthann (3),365
126.E. Niall Mor (or Nial of the Nine Hostages),378
127.E. Dathi,405

All the foregoing Monarchs were Pagans; but some authors are of opinion that Nos. 112, 115, and 126 were enlightened by the Holy Spirit in the truths of Christianity. Others are of opinion that the Monarch Laeghaire, son of Niall Mor, and who is No. 128 on this Roll, died a Pagan, although reigning at the time of the advent of St. Patrick, in Ireland.

Anno Domini
128.E. Laeghaire MacNiall,428
129.E. Olioll Molt, son of Dathi,458
130.E. Lughaidh; son of Laaeghaire,478
131.E. Muirceartach Mor MacEarca, brother of Fergus Mor MacEarca, the Founder of the Milesian Monarchy in Scotland,503
132.E. Tuathal Maolgharbh,527
133.E. Diarmid, son of Fergus Cearrbheoil,538
134.E. Donall (1) }
135.E. Fergus (3) } Brothers—both died of the Plague in one day,558
136.E. Eochaidh (13) }
137.E. Boitean (1) } Nephew and Uncle,561
138.E. Anmire,563
139.E. Boitean (2)566
140.E. Aodh (2),567
141.E. Aodh Slaine,594

Some annalists state that this Aodh Slaine was a brother of Lochan Dilmhain, who, according to the "Book of Armagh," was ancestor of Dillon; but (see the "Dillon" pedigree) Lochan Dilmhain was brother of Colman Rimidh, the next Monarch on this Roll, who reigned jointly with Aodh Slaine, for six years.

Anno Domini
142.E. Colman Rimidh,
143.E. Aodh Uar-iodhnach,600
144.E. Mallcobh,607
145.E. Suimneach Meann,610
146.E. Donall (2),623
147.E. Ceallach,639
148.E. Congall (3)652
149.E. Diarmid (2)}
150.E. Bladhmhac} Reigned jointly,656
151.E. Seachnasach,664
152.E. Ceanfail,669
153.E. Finachta Fleadhach,673
154.E. Longseach,693
155.E. Congall (4),701
156.E. Fergall,708
157.E. Foghartach,718
158.E. Ceneth,719
159.E. Flaithertach,722
160.E. Aodh Olann,729
161.E. Donall (3),738
162.E. Niall Frassach,758
163.E. Doncha (1),765
164.E. Aodh Ornigh,792
In this Monarch's reign the Danes [4] invaded Ireland.
165.E. Conchobhair (2),817
166.E. Niall Caille,831
167.E. Malachi I.,844
168.E. Aodh Fionnliath,860
169.E. Flann Sionnach (ancestor of Fox),876
170.E. Niall Glundubh (aquo O'Neill)914
171.E. Doncha (2),917
172.E. Congall,942
173.E. Donall (4),954
174.E. Malachi II. (ancestor of O'Melaghlin),978

Malachi the Second was the last absolute Monarch of Ireland. He reigned as Monarch twenty-four years before the accession to the Monarchy of Brian Boroimhe [Boru], and again after Brian's death, which took place A.D. 1014, at the Battle of Clontarf.

175. H. Brian Boroimhe (ancestor of and aquo O'Brien), 1001 Brian Boru reigned sixty-six years, twelve of which as Monarch; he was eighty-eight years of age when slain at the Battle of Clontarf.

After Brian's death—

Malachi II. was restored to the Monarchy, 1014. After nine years' reign, Malachi died a penitent at Cro Inis (or the "Cell on the Island"), upon Loch Annin in Westmeath, A.D. 1023; being the forty-eighth Christian King of Ireland, and accounted the last absolute Monarch of the Milesian or Scottish line: the provincial Kings and Princes always after contesting, fighting, and quarrelling for the sovereignty, until they put all into confusion, and that the King of Leinster brought in King Henry the Second to assist him against his enemies.

Those and such as our histories mention to have assumed the name and title of Monarchs of Ireland, without the general consent of the major part of the Kingdom, are as follows:—

176. H. Doncha (or Donough) ... ... ... 1022

This Doncha was son of Brian Boru, and was King of Munster till the death of the Monarch Malachi the Second. He then assumed the title of Monarch, till defeated and banished from Ireland by Dermod, son of Donough, called "Maol-na-Mho," King of Leinster, who is accounted by some to succeed Doncha in the Monarchy; yet is assigned no years for his reign, but that he contested with the said Doncha until he utterly defeated and banished him, A.D. 1064: from which time it is likely that Dermod reigned the rest of the fifty-two years assigned for the reign of Doncha, who died at Rome, A.D. 1074.

177. E. Diarmid (3), or Dermod, ... ... ... ——

By the Irish historians this Dermod, son of Doncha or Donough, King of Leinster, is assigned no date for his accession to the Monarchy.

178. H. Tirloch O'Brien, ... ... ... 1074

This Tirloch was the son of Teige, eldest son of Brian Boru; and was styled Monarch of Ireland from his uncle's death at Rome, A.D. 1074.

Anno Domini
179.E. Donall MacLoghlin, son of Ardgal, King of Aileach, was styled Monarch, and ruled alone for twelve years; began to reign,1086
180.H. Muirceartach O'Brien, King of Munster, was, from 1098 up to his death, A.D. 1119, jointly in the Monarchy with Donall MacLoghlin; began to reign,1098
Donall reigned alone, after the death of Muirceartach O'Brien, to his own death, A.D. 1121; began to reign alone the second time, and reigned two years,1119
From Donall's death, A.D. 1121, to A.D. 1136, though many contested, yet, for fifteen years, none assumed the title of Monarch,1121
181.E. Tirloch Mor O'Connor, King of Connaught for fifty years, and Monarch from A.D.,1136
182.E. Muircearth MacLoghlin, grandson of Donal (No. 179, above), was styled Monarch from A.D.1156
183.E. Roderick O'Connor [5]1166
184.(E. Brian O'Neill,[6] No. 113 on the "O'Neill" pedigree1258)


[1] Kings: As the kings descended from Heber, Ir, and Heremon (the three sons of Milesius of Spain who left any issue), as well as those descended from their relative Lughaidh, the son of Ithe, were all eligible for the Monarchy, the letter H, E, I or L, is employed in the foregoing Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland, before the name of each Monarch there given, to distinguish his lineal descent. Thus H, E, and I refer to tho three brothers Heber, Heremon, and Ir, respectively: H, is placed before the names of the Monarchs who were descended from Heber; E, before those descended from Eremon or Heremon; I, before those descended from Ir; and L, before those descended from Lughaidh.

[2] Cean-cait: This word cean-cait ("cat," gen. "cait:" Irish, a cat; Gr. Vulg. "kat-is," "gat-as," and "kat-a;" Lat. "cat-us;" It. and Span, "gat-o;" Fr. "chat; Bel. "kat-te;" Russ. "kot-e;" Arm. "kas;" Wel. and Cor. "kath;" and Turk. "ket-i") means cat-headed.

[3] Art Eanfhear: It is stated in the "History of the Cemeteries," that this Monarch believed in the Faith, the day before the battle (of Magh Mucroimhe, near Athenry, where he was slain by Lughaidh Maccon, A.D. 195), and predicted the spread of Christianity. It would appear also that he had some presentiment of his death; tor, he directed that he should not be buried at Brugh on the (river) Boyne, the Pagan cemetery of his forefathers, but at a place then called Dumha Dergluachra (the burial mound of the red rushy place), "where Trevait (Trevet, in the county Meath) is at this day, (see Petrie's "Round Towers," page 100).—Irish Names of Places.

[4] The Danes: "Ten years with four score and seven hundred was the age of Christ when the pagans went to Ireland." The Vickings (or Danes) having been defeated in Glamorganshire in Wales, invaded Ireland, in the reign of the monarch Aodh Ornigh. In A.D. 798, they ravaged the Isle of Man, and the Hebrides in Scotland; in 802, they burned "Hi Colum Cille;" in 807, for the first time in Ireland, they marched inland; in 812 and 813, they made raids in Connaught and Munster. After thirty years of this predatory warfare had continued, Turgesius, a Norwegian Prince, established himself as sovereign of the Vickings, and made Armagh his head quarters, A.D. 830. Sometimes the Danish Chiefs mustered all their forces and left the island for a brief period, to ravage the shores of England, or Scotland; but, wild, brave, and cruel, they soon returned to inflict new barbarities on the unfortunate Irish. Turgesius appropriated the abbeys and churches of the country; and placed an abbot of his own in every monastery. A Danish captain was placed in charge of each village; and each family was obliged to maintain a soldier of that nation, who made himself master of the house, using and wasting the food, for lack of which the children of the lawful owners were often dying of hunger. All education was strictly forbidden: books and manuscripts were burned and "drowned;" and the poets, historians, and musicians, imprisoned and driven to the woods and mountains. Martial sports were interdicted, from the lowest to the highest rank; even nobles and princes were forbidden to wear their usual habilaments: the cast-off clothes of the Danes being considered sufficiently good for slaves! In A.D. 948, the Danes were converted to Christianity; and at that time possessed many of the sea-coast towns of Ireland—including Dublin, Limerick, Wexford, and Waterford.—Miss Cusack.

[5] Roderick O'Connor, King of Connaught, was the last undoubted Monarch of Ireland from his predecessor's death, A.D. 1166, for twenty years, to the year 1186; within which time, by the invitation of Dermod-na-n-Gall, King of Leinster, the English first invaded Ireland, A.D. 1169. The Monarch Roderick, seeing his subjects flinch and his own sons turn against him, hearkened to and accepted the conditions offered him by King Henry II., which being ratified on both sides, A.D. 1175, Roderick continued in the government (at least the name of it), until A.D. 1186, when, weary of the world and its troubles, he forsook it and all its pomp, and retired to a Monastery, where he finished his course religiously, A.D. 1198.

[6] Brian O'Neill: It is worthy of remark that, at A.D. 1258, the Four Masters mention that "Hugh, the son of Felim O'Connor, and Teige O'Brien, marched with a great force to Caol Uisge (near Newry), to hold a conference with Brian O'Neill, to whom the foregoing chiefs, after making peace with each other, granted the sovereignty over the Irish." And, two years later, at the Battle of Down, this Brian gallantly laid down his life in defence of the Kingdom of Ireland, which he claimed to govern. (See D'Arcy McGee's History of Ireland, Vol. I., p. 208.) Again, the Four Masters, at A.D. 1260, in giving the names of the killed at the Battle of Drom Deirg, mention Brian O'Neill as "Chief Ruler of Ireland." In his letter to Pope John XXII., Donal, the son of the said Brian, says he is "Donald O'Neill, King of Ulster, and by hereditary right lawful heir to the throne of Ireland."—See CONNELLAN'S "Four Masters," p. 722.