From Irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation by John O'Hart
HEREMON was the seventh son of Milesius of Spain (who is No. 36, p. 50), but the third of the three sons who left any issue. From him were descended the Kings, Nobility, and Gentry of the Kingdoms of Connaught, Dalriada, Leinster, Meath, Orgiall, Ossory; of Scotland, since the fifth century; of Ulster, since the fourth century; and of England, from the reign of King Henry II., down to the present time.
THE Stem of the Irish Nation from Heremon down to (No. 81) Art Eanfhear, Monarch of Ireland in the second century, who was the ancestor of O'h-Airt, anglicised O'Hart.
"The House of Heremon," writes O'Callaghan, "from the number of its princes, or great families—from the multitude of its distinguished characters, as laymen or churchmen—and from the extensive territories acquired by those belonging to it, at home and abroad, or in Alba as well as in Ireland—was regarded as by far the most illustrious: so much so, according to the best native authority, that it would be as reasonable to affirm that one pound is equal in value to one hundred pounds, as it would be to compare any other line with that of Heremon."
36. Milesius of Spain.
37. Heremon: his son. He and his eldest brother Heber were, jointly, the first Milesian Monarchs of Ireland; they began to reign, A.M. 3,500, or, Before Christ, 1699. After Heber was slain, B.C. 1698, Heremon reigned singly for fourteen years; during which time a certain colony called by the Irish Cruithneaigh, in English "Cruthneans" or Picts, arrived in Ireland and requested Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but, giving them as wives the widows of the Tuatha-de-Danans, slain in battle, he sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called "Alba," but now Scotland; conditionally, that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland. Heremon died, B.C. 1683, and was succeeded by three of his four sons, named Muimne, Luigne, and Laighean, who reigned jointly for three years, and were slain by their Heberian successors.
38. Irial Faidh ("faidh": Irish, a prophet): his son; was the 10th Monarch of Ireland; d. B.C. 1670. This was a very iearned King; could foretell things to come; and caused much of the country to be cleared of the ancient forests. He likewise built seven royal palaces, viz., Rath Ciombaoith, Rath Coincheada, Rath Mothuig, Rath Buirioch, Rath Luachat, Rath Croicne, and Rath Boachoill. He won four remarkable battles over his enemies:—Ard Inmath, at Teabtha, where Stirne, the son of Dubh, son of Fomhar, was slain; the second battle was at Teanmhuighe, against the Fomhoraice, where Eichtghe, their leader, was slain; the third was the battle of Loch Muighe, where Lugrot, the son of Moghfeibhis, was slain; and the fourth was the battle of Cuill Martho, where the four sons of Heber were defeated. Irial died in the second year after this battle, having reigned 10 years, and was buried at Magh Muagh.
39. Eithrial: his son; was the 11th Monarch; reigned 20 years; and was slain by Conmaol, the son of Heber Fionn, at the battle of Soirrean, in Leinster, B.C. 1650.
This also was a learned King, he wrote with his own hand the History of the Gaels (or Gadelians); in his reign seven large woods were cleared and much advance made in the practice of agriculture.
40. Foll-Aich: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Conmaol, the slayer of his father, who usurped his place.
41. Tigernmas : his son; was the 13th Monarch, and reigned 77 years; according to Keating, he reigned but 50 years; he fought twenty-seven battles with the followers of the family of Heber Fionn, all which he gained. In his reign gold was mined near the Liffey, and skilfully worked by Inchadhan. This King also made a law that each grade of society should be known by the number of colours in its wearing apparel:—the clothes of a slave should be of one colour; those of a soldier of two; the dress of a commanding officer to be of three colours; a gentleman's dress, who kept a table for the free entertainment of strangers, to be of four colours; five colours to be allowed to the nobility (the chiefs); and the King, Queen, and Royal Family, as well as the Druids, historians, and other learned men to wear six colours.
This King died, B.C. 1543, on the Eve of 1st of November, with two-thirds of the people of Ireland, at Magh Sleaght (or Field of Adoration), in the county of Leitrim, as he was adoring the Sun-God, Crom Cruach (a quo Macroom).
Historians say this Monarch was the first who introduced image worship in Ireland.
42. Enboath: his son. It was in this prince's lifetime that the Kingdom was divided in two parts by a line drawn from Drogheda to Limerick.
43. Smiomghall: his son; in his lifetime the Picts in Scotland were forced to abide by their oath, and pay homage to the Irish Monarch; seven large woods were also cut down.
44. Fiacha Labhrainn: his son; was the 18th Monarch; reigned 24 years; slew Eochaidh Faobharglas, of the line of Heber, at the battle of Carman. During his reign all the inhabitants of Scotland were brought in subjection to the Irish Monarchy, and the conquest was secured by his son the 20th Monarch. Fiacha at length (B.C. 1448) fell in the battle of Bealgadain, by the hands of Eochaidh Mumho, the son of Moefeibhis, of the race of Heber Fionn.
45. Aongus Olmucach: his son; was the 20th Monarch; in his reign the Picts again refused to pay the tribute imposed on them 250 years before, by Heremon, but this Monarch went with a strong army into Alba and in thirty pitched battles overcame them and forced them to pay the required tribute.
Aongus was at length slain by Eana, in the battle of Carman, B.C. 1409.
46. Main: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by Eadna, of the line of Heber Fionn. In his time silver shields were given as rewards for bravery to the Irish militia.
47. Rotheachtach : his son; was the 22nd Monarch; slain, B.C. 1357, by Sedne (or Seadhna), of the Line of Heremon.
48. Dein: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer, and his son. In his time gentlemen and noblemen first wore gold chains round their necks, as a sign of their birth; and golden helmets were given to brave soldiers,
49. Siorna "Saoghalach" (longaevus): his son; was the 34th Monarch; he obtained the name "Saoghalach" on account of his extraordinary long life; slain, B.C. 1030, at Aillin, by Rotheachta, of the Line of Heber Fionn, who usurped the Monarchy, thereby excluding from the throne—
50. Olioll Aolcheoin: son of Siorna Saoghalach.
51. Gialchadh: his son; was the 37th Monarch; killed by Art Imleach, of the Line of Heber Fionn, at Moighe Muadh, B.C. 1013.
52. Nuadhas Fionnfail: his son; was the 39th Monarch; slain by Breasrioghacta, his successor, B.C. 961.
53. Aedan Glas: his son. In his time the coast was infested with pirates; and there occurred a dreadful plague (Apthach) which swept away most of the inhabitants.
54. Simeon Breac: his son; was the 44th Monarch; he inhumanly caused his predecessor to be torn asunder; but, after a reign of six years, he met with a like death, by order of Duach Fionn, son to the murdered King, B.C. 903.
55. Muredach Bolgach: his son; was the 46th Monarch; killed by Eadhna Dearg, B.C. 892; he had two sons—Duach Teamhrach, and Fiacha.
56. Fiacha Tolgrach: son of Muredach; was the 55th Monarch. His brother Duach had two sons, Eochaidh Framhuine and Conang Beag-eaglach, who were the 51st and 53rd Monarchs of Ireland.
Fiacha's life was ended by the sword of Oilioll Fionn, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 795.
57. Duach Ladhrach: his son; was the 59th Monarch; killed by Lughaidh Laighe, son of Oilioll Fionn, B.C. 737.
58. Eochaidh Buadhach: his son; was kept out of the Monarchy by his father's slayer. In his time the kingdom was twice visited with a plague.
59. Ugaine Mór : his son. This Ugaine (or Hugony) the Great was the 66th Monarch of Ireland. Was called Mór on account of his extensive dominions,—being sovereign of all the Islands of Western Europe. Was married to Caesair, dau. to the King of France, and by her had issue—twenty-two sons and three daughters. In order to prevent these children encroaching on each other he divided the Kingdom into twenty-five portions, allotting to each his (or her) distinct inheritance. By means of this division the taxes of the country were collected during the succeeding 300 years. All the sons died without issue except two, viz:—Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor of all the Leinster Heremonians; and Cobthach Caolbhreagh, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, viz., Meath, Ulster, and Conacht derive their pedigree.
Ugaine was at length, B.C. 593, slain by Badhbhchadh, who failed to secure the fruits of his murder—the Irish Throne, as he was executed by order of Laeghaire Lorc, the murdered Monarch's son, who became the 68th Monarch.
60. Colethach Caol-bhreagh: son of Ugaine Mór; was the 69th Monarch; it is said, that, to secure the Throne, he assassinated his brother Laeghaire; after a long reign he was at length slain by Maion, his nephew, B.C. 641.
61. Melg Molbhthach: his son; was the 71st Monarch; was slain by Modhchorb, son of Cobhthach Caomh, of the Line of Heber Fionn, B.C. 541.
62. Iaran Gleofathach: his son; was the 74th Monarch; was a King of great justice and wisdom, very well learned and possessed of many accomplishments; slain by Fear-Chorb, son of Modh-Chorb, B.C. 473.
63. Conla Caomh: his son; was the 74th Monarch of Ireland; died a natural death, B.C. 442.
64. Olioll Cas-fiachlach: his son; was the 77th Monarch; slain by his successor, Adhamhar Foltchaion, B.C. 417.
65. Eochaidh Alt-Leathan: his son; was the 79th Monarch; slain by Feargus Fortamhail, his successor, B.C. 395.
66. Aongus (or Aeneas) Tuirmeach-Teamraeh: his son; was the 81st Monarch; his son, Fiacha Firmara (so called from being exposed in a small boat on the sea) was ancestor of the Kings of Dalriada and Argyle in Scotland. This Aongus was slain at Tara (Teamhrach), B.C. 324.
67. Enna Aigneach: the legitimate son of Aongus; was the 84th Monarch; was of a very bountiful disposition, and exceedingly munificent in his donations. This King lost his life by the hands of Criomthan Cosgrach, B.C. 292.
68. Assaman Eamhna: his son; was excluded from the Throne by his father's murderer.
69. Roighen Ruadh: his son; in his time most of the cattle in Ireland died of murrain.
70. Fionnlogh: his son.
71. Fionn: his son; m. Benia, dau. of Criomthan; had two sons.
72. Eochaidh Feidlioch: his son; was the 93rd Monarch; m. Cloth-fionn, dau. of Eochaidh Uchtleathan, who was a very virtuous lady. By him she had three children at a birth—Breas, Nar, and Lothar (the Fineamhas), who were slain at the battle of Dromahriadh; after their death, a melancholy settled on the Monarch, hence his name "Feidhlioch."
This Monarch caused the division of the Kingdom by Ugaine Mór into twenty-five parts, to cease; and ordered that the ancient Firvolgian division into Provinces should be resumed, viz., Two Munsters, Leinster, Conacht, and Ulster.
He also divided the government of these Provinces amongst his favourite courtiers:—-Conacht he divided into three parts between Fiodhach, Eochaidh Allat, and Tinne, son of Conragh, son of Ruadhri Mór, No 62 on the "Line of Heremon;" Ulster (Uladh) he gave to Feargus, the son of Leighe; Leinster he gave to Ros, the son of Feargus Fairge; and the two Munsters he gave to Tighernach Teadhbheamach and Deagbadah.
After this division of the Kingdom, Eochaidh proceeded to erect a Royal Palace in Conacht; this he built on Tinne's government in a place called Druin-na-n Druagh, now Craughan (from Craughan Crodhearg, Maedhbh's mother, to whom she gave the palace), but previously, Rath Eochaidh. About the same time he bestowed his daughter the Princess Maedhbh on Tinne, whom he constituted King of Conacht; Maedhbh being hereditary Queen of that Province.
After many years reign Tinne was slain by Maceacht (or Monaire) at Tara. After ten years' undivided reign, Queen Maedhbh married Oilioll Mór, son of Ros Ruadh, of Leinster, to whom she bore the seven Maine; Oilioll Mór was at length slain by Conall Cearnach, who was soon after killed by the people of Conacht. Maedhbh was at length slain by Ferbhuidhe, the son of Conor MacNeasa (Neasa was his mother); but in reality this Conor was the son of Fachtna Fathach, son of Cas, sonof Ruadhri Mór, of the Line of Heremon.
This Monarch, Eochaidh, died at Tara, B.C. 130.
73. Bress-Nar-Lothar: his son. In his time the Irish first dug graves beneath the surface to bury their dead; previously they laid the body on the surface and heaped stones over it. He had also been named Fineamhnas.
74. Lughaidh Sriabh-n Dearg: his son; was the 98th Monarch; he entered into an alliance with the King of Denmark, whose daughter, Dearborguill, he obtained as his wife; he killed himself by falling on his sword in the eighth year Before Christ.
75. Crimthann-Niadh-Nar : his son; who was the 100th Monarch of Ireland, and styled "The Heroic." It was in this Monarch's reign that our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was born.
Crimthann's death was occasioned by a fall from his horse, B.C. 9. Was married to Nar-Tath-Chaoch, dau. of Laoch, son of Daire, who lived in the land of the Picts (Scotland).
76. Feredach Fionn-Feachtnach: his son; was the 102nd Monarch. The epithet "feachtnach" was applied to this Monarch because of his truth and sincerity. In his reign lived Moran, the son of Maoin, a celebrated Brehon, or Chief Justice of the Kingdom; it is said that he was the first who wore the wonderful collar called Iodhain Morain; this collar possessed a wonderful property:—if the judge who wore it attempted to pass a false judgment it would immediately contract, so as nearly to stop his breathing; but if he reversed such false sentence the collar would at once enlarge itself, and hang loose around his neck. This collar was also caused to be worn by those who acted as witnesses, so as to test the accuracy of their evidence. This Monarch, Feredach, died a natural death at the regal city at Tara, A.D. 36.
77. Fiacha Fionn Ola : his son; was the 104th Monarch; reigned 17 years, and was (A.D. 56) slain by Eiliomh MacConrach, of the Race of Ir, who succeeded him on the throne. This Fiacha was married to Eithne, daughter of the King of Alba; whither, being near her confinement at the death of her husband, she went, and was there delivered of a son, who was named Tuathal.
78. Tuathal Teachtmar: that son; was the 106th Monarch of Ireland. When Tuathal came of age, he got together his friends, and, with what aid his grandfather the king of Alba gave him, came into Ireland and fought and overcame his enemies in twenty-five battles in Ulster, twenty-five in Leinster, as many in Connaught, and thirty-five in Munster. And having thus restored the true royal blood and heirs to their respective provincial kingdoms, he thought fit to take, as he accordingly did with their consent, from each of the four divisions or provinces of Munster, Leinster, Connaught, and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisneach (where Tuathal had a palace): one east, another west, a third south, and a fourth on the north of it; and appointed all four (tracts of ground so taken from the four provinces) under the name of Midhe or "Meath" to belong for ever after to the Monarch's own peculiar demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors; for every of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial Kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was this Monarch that imposed the great and insupportable fine (or "Eric") of 6,000 cows or beeves, as many fat muttons, (as many) hogs, 6,000 mantles, 6,000 ounces (or "Uinge") of silver, and 12,000 (others have it 6,000) cauldrons or pots of brass, to be paid every second year by the province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters Fithir and Darina. (See Paper "Ancient Leinster Tributes," in the Appendix). This tribute was punctually taken and exacted, sometimes by fire and sword, during the reigns of forty Monarchs of Ireland upwards of six hundred years, until at last remitted by Finachta Fleadhach, the 153rd Monarch of Ireland, and the 26th Christian Monarch, at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. At the end of thirty years' reign, the Monarch Tuathal was slain by his successor Mal, A.D. 106.
This Monarch erected a Royal Palace at Tailtean; around the grave of Queen Tailte he caused the Fairs to be resumed on La Lughnasa (Lewy's Day), to which were brought all of the youth of both sexes of a suitable age to be married, at which Fair the marriage articles were agreed upon, and the ceremony performed.
Tuathal married Bainé, the dau. of Sgaile Balbh, King of England.
79. Fedhlimidh (Felim) Rachtmar: his son; was so called as being a maker of excellent wholesome laws, among which he established with all firmness that of "Retaliation;" kept to it inviolably; and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty, and security during his time. This Felim was the 108th Monarch; reigned nine years; and, after all his pomp and greatness, died of thirst, A.D. 119. He married Ughna, dau. of the King of Denmark.
80. Conn Ceadcathach (or Conn of the Hundred Battles ); his son; This Conn was so called from hundreds of battles by him fought and won: viz., sixty battles against Cahir Mór, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded in the Monarchy; one hundred battles against the Ulsterians; and one hundred more in Munster against Owen Mór (or Mogha Nua-Dhad), their King, who, notwithstanding, forced the said Conn to an equal division of the Kingdom with him. He had two brothers—1. Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart, 2. Fiacha Suidhe, who, to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons named Conla Ruadh and Crionna; but they were by the third son Art Eanfhear banished, first into Leinster, and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. They were seated at Deici Teamhrach (now the barony of Desee in Meath), whence they were expelled by the Monarch Cormac Ulfhada, son of Art; and, after various wanderings, they went to Munster where Oilioll Olum, who was married to Sadhbh, daughter of Conn of the Hundred Battles, gave them a large district of the present county of Waterford, a part of which is still called Na-Deiseacha, or the baronies of Desies. They were also given the country comprised in the present baronies of Clonmel, Upper-Third, and Middle-Third, in the co. Tipperary, which they held till the Anglo-Norman Invasion. From Eochaidh Fionn-Fohart decended O'Nowlan or Nolan of Fowerty (or Foharta), in Lease (or Leix), and Saint Bridget; and from Fiacha Suidhe are O'Dolan, O'Brick of Dunbrick, and O'Faelan of Dun Faelan, near Cashel. Conn of the Hundred Battles had also three daughters: 1. Sadhbh, who m. first, MacNiadh, after whose death she m. Oilioll Olum, King of Munster. (See No. 84 on the "Line of Heber"); 2. Maoin; and 3. Sarah (or Sarad), m. to Conan MacMogha Laine.—(See No. 81 infra).
Conn reigned 35 years; but was at length barbarously slain by Tiobraidhe Tireach, son of Mal, son of Rochruidhe, King of Ulster. This murder was committed in Tara, A.D. 157, when Conn chanced to be alone and unattended by his guards; the assassins were fifty ruffians, disguised as women, whom the King of Ulster employed for the purpose.
81. Art Eanfhear, the 112th Monarch of Ireland, in the second century of our era, and the ancestor of O'h-Airt, anglicised O'Hart.
 Connaught: In other parts of this Work "Connaught" is spelled Conacht; as we found it in the MS. or Work which we consulted.
 Heremon: According to the "Book of Ballymote," the river "Liffey" derived its name from the circumstance of a battle having been fought near it by the Milesians, against the Tua-de-Danans; and the horse of the Milesian Monarch Heremon, which was named Gabhar [gavar] Liffe" (gabhar: ancient Scotic and British word for the Lat. "eq-uus," a horse, which, in modern Irish, is "each" [ogh], a steed), having been killed there, the river was called "Liffe" or "Liffey." In Irish it was called "Amhan Liffe (Amhan: Irish, a river; Lat. amn-is), signifying the River Liffey, which was first anglicised Avon Liffey," and, in modern times, changed to Anna Liffey—the river on which the city of Dublin is built.
 Muimne: This Monarch was buried at Cruachan (cruachan: Irish, a little hill) or Croaghan, situated near Elphin, in the county of Roscommon. In the early ages, Croaghan became the capital of Connaught and a residence of the ancient Kings of Ireland; and at Croaghan the states of Connaught held conventions, to make laws and inaugurate their Kings. There, too, about a century before the Christian era, the Monarch Eochy Feidlioch (No. 72 in this stem) erected a royal residence and a great rath, called "Rath-Cruachan," after his queen, Cruachan Croidheirg (Croidheirg; Irish, a rising heart), mother of Maud, the celebrated queen of Connaught, who, wearing on her head "Aision" or golden crown, and seated in her gilded war-chariot surrounded by several other war-chariots, commanded in person, like the ancient queens of the Amazons, her Connaught forces, in the memorable seven years' war against the Red Branch Knights of Ulster, who were commanded by King Connor MacNessa, as mentioned in our ancient records.—CONNELLAN".
 Tigernmas (or Tiernmas): This Tiernmas was the Monarch who set up the famous idol called "Crom Cruach" (literally, the crooked heap) on the plain of Magh Sleaght, now Fenagh, in the barony of Mohill, county of Leitrim. This idol was worshipped up to the time of St. Patrick, by whom it was destroyed. Among the idol-worship of the ancient Irish at that time was that of the sun: the sun-worship which was that of the Magi or wise men of the East, who, we are told in Scripture, were led to Bethlehem by divine inspiration to see the Infant Jesus.
This Monarch introduced certain distinctions in rank among the Irish, which were indicated by the wearing of certain colours, which, by some persons, is believed to have been the origin of the Scotch plaid. According to Keatinge, one colour was used in the dress of a slave; two colours in that of a plebeian; three, in that of a soldier or young lord; four, in that of a brughaidh or public victualler; five, in that of a lord of a tuath or cantred; and six colours in that of an ollamh or chief professor of any of the liberal arts, and in that of the king and queen—BOOK OF RIGHTS.
 Rotheachtach: Silver shields were made, and four-horse chariots were first used. in Ireland, in the reign of this Monarch.
 Ugaine Mór: In the early ages the Irish Kings made many military expeditions into foreign countries. Ugaine Mór, called by O'Flaherty, in his Ogygia, "Hugonius Magnus," was contemporary with Alexander the Great; and is stated to have sailed with a fleet into the Mediterranean, landed his forces in Africa, and also attacked Sicily; and having proceeded to Gaul, was married to Caesair, daughter of the King of the Gauls. Hugonius was buried at Cruachan. The Irish sent, during the Punic wars, auxiliary troops to their Celtic Brethren, the Gauls; who in their alliance with the Carthaginians under Hannibal, fought against the Roman armies in Spain and Italy—CONNELLAN.
 Crimthann Niadh Nar: This Monarch and Conaire Mór (or Conary the Great), the 97th Monarch of Ireland, respectively made expeditions to Britain and Gaul; and assisted the Picts and Britains in their wars with the Romans. Crimthann was married to Bainé, daughter of the King of Alba, and the mother of Feredach Fionn Feachtnach, (the next name on this Stem). O'Flaherty in the Ogygia, p. 181, says, "Naira, the daughter of Loich, the son of Dareletus of the northern Picts of Britain, was Crimthann's Queen, after whom, I suppose, ho was called Nia-Nair."
This Crimthann died at his fortress, called "Dun-Crimthann" (at Bin Edar now the Hill of Howth), after his return from an expedition against the Romans in Britain, from which he brought to Ireland various spoils: amongst other things, a splendid war chariot, gilded and highly ornamented; golden-hilted swords and shields, embossed with silver; a table studded with three hundred brilliant gems; a pair of grey hounds coupled with a splendid silver chain estimated to be worth one hundred cumal ("cumal:" Irish, a maid servant), or three hundred cows; together with a great quantity of other precious articles. In this Crimthann's reign the oppression of the Plebeians by the Milesians came to a climax: during three years the oppressed Attacotti saved their scanty earnings to prepare a sumptuous death-feast, which, after Crimthann's death, was held at a place called "Magh Cro" (or the Field of Blood), supposed to be situated near Lough Conn in the county of Mayo. To this feast they invited the provincial Kings, nobility, and gentry of the Milesian race in Ireland, with a view to their extirpation; and, when the enjoyment was at its height, the Attacots treacherously murdered almost all their unsuspecting victims.
They then set up a king of their own tribe, a stranger named Cairbre (the 101st Monarch of Ireland), who was called "Cean-Cait" from the cat-headed shape of his head: the only king of a stranger that ruled Ireland since the Milesians first arrived there.—CONNELLAN.
 Moran: See the Note "Hebrew" in page 30.
 Fiacha Fionn Ola (or Fiacha of the White Oxen): According to some annalists, it was in this Monarch's reign that the Milesian nobility and gentry of Ireland were treacherously murdered by the Attacotti, as already mentioned; but, in the "Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland" (see page 58), Cairbre, Cean-Cait, whom the Attacotti set up as a king of their own. tribe, is given as the 101st, while this Fiacha is there given as the 104th Monarch of Ireland: therefore Cairbre Cean-Cait reigned before, and not after Fiacha Fionn Ola.
 Tuathal Teachmar (or Tuathal the Legitimate): It is worthy of remark that Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola," states that one of the Irish princes, who was an exile from his own country, waited on Agricola, who was then the Roman general in Britain, to solicit his support in the recovery of the kingdom of Ireland; for that, with one of the Roman legions and a few auxiliaries, Ireland could be subdued. This Irish prince was probably Tuathal Teachtmar, who was about that time in Alba or (Caledonia). Tuathal afterwards became Monarch of Ireland, and the Four Masters place the first year of his reign at A.D. 76; and as Agricola with the Roman legions carried on the war against the Caledonians about A.D. 75 to 78, the period coincides chronologically with the time Tuathal Teachtmar was in exile in North Britain; and he might naturally be expected to apply to the Romans for aid to recover his sovereignty as heir to the Irish Monarchy.—CONNELLAN.
 Felim Rachtmar: It is singular to remark how the call to a life of virginity was felt and corresponded with first in this family in Ireland after it was Christianized. As St. Ité was descended from Fiacha, a son of this wise Monarch, so the illustrious St. Bridget was (see p. 43) descended from Eocha, another son of Felim, and brother of Conn of the Hundred Battles. St. Brigid was born at Fochard (now Faughart), near Dundalk, about A.D. 453, where her parents happened to be staying at the time; but their usual place of residence was Kildare, where, A.D. 483, she established the famous Monastery of "Kildare," which signifies the Church of the Oak.—MISS CUSACK.
St. Ité or Idé is often called the Brigid of Munster; she was born about A.D. 480, and was the first who founded a convent in Munster, in a place called Clooncrail: the name of which was afterwards changed to "Kill-Idé," now called Killedy, a parish in the county Limerick.—JOYCE.
 Conn of the Hundred Fights: This name in Irish is "Conn Cead-Cathach," a designation given to that hero of antiquity, in a Poem by O'Gnive, the bard of O'Neill, which is quoted in the "Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland," page 423:
"Conn of the Hundred Fights, sleep in thy grass-grown tomb, and upbraid not our defeats with thy victories."
To that ancient hero and warrior, Moore pays a graceful tribute of respect in the song—"How oft has the Benshee cried," given in the Irish Melodies.
According to the popular belief, the "Benshee" or guardian spirit of the House of Conn of the Hundred Fights, above mentioned, night after night, in the Castle of Dungannon, upbraided the famous Hugh O'Neill, for having accepted the Earldom of Tir-Owen, conferred on him by Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1587. "Hence," writes O'Callaghan, "the Earl did afterwards assume the name of O'Neill, and therewith he was so elevated that he would often boast, that he would rather be O'Neill of Ulster than King of Spain." On his submission, however, A.D. 1603, his title and estates were confirmed to him by King James the First.—O'CALLAGHAN.
It is worthy of remark, that, while Conn of the Hundred Battles lived in the second century, we read in the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, that this Pagan Monarch "prophesied" the introduction of Christianity into Ireland!
 Fiacha Suidhe: This Fiacha Suidhe was the father of Fiacha Riadhe, the father of Fothadh, the father of Duibhne, the father of Donn, the father of Diarmuid, usually called Diarmuid Ua Duibhne (or Diarmuid, the grandson of Duibhne), who married Grainné, daughter of the Monarch Cormac MacArt (or Cormac Ulfhada), and had issue by her: 1. Donchadh, 2. Eochaidh, 3. Ollann, 4. Connla. This Diarmuid O'Duibhne's mother was Corcraine, dau. of Slectaire, son of Curigh, the fourth son of the Monarch Cathair Mór (See No. 89 on the "O'Toole" pedigree). Diarmuid O'Duibhne was the founder of the Clan Campbell, known in the Highlands of Scot. land as Slioch na Diarmuid Ua Duibhne (or "descendants of Diarmid O'Duibhne"). That Clan Campbell are now known by the name Campbell; they have abandoned the old Irish sirname O'Duibhne or O'Duin.
Charlotte Milligan Fox, sister of the poet Alice Milligan, was a founding member of the Irish Folk Song Society and an indefatigable field collector of Irish traditional music. Her singularly important work on Irish haprers is here presented for the twenty-first century reader. This edition of Annals offers a much greater number of illustrations than were included in the original 1911 publication, a full biographical introduction, an extensive bibliography of the writings of Milligan Fox and an appendix discussing the variant texts of Arthur O’Neills Memoirs.
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