I.—THE LINE OF HEBER

In Munster [1]

From Irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation by John O'Hart

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1.—THE STEM OF "THE LINE OF HEBER."

The Stem of the Irish Nation, from Milesius of Spain (who is No. 36, page 50), down to No. 94 Aodh Dubh, King of Munster, from whose two sons respectively descended the illustrious families of O'Sullivan, and MacCarthy.

The three sons of Milesius who left any issue were—1. Heber Fionn, 2. Ir, and 3. Heremon. Heber being the eldest of those three sons, the descent from him is here first given:

36. MILESIUS
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(1)(2)(3)
37. Heber Fionn37. Ir37. Heremon

This Heber Fionn was the first Milesian Monarch of Ireland, conjointly with his brother Heremon. Heber was slain by Heremon, Before Christ, 1698.

38. Conmaol: his son; was the twelfth Monarch.

(The year in which any of the Monarchs began to reign can be ascertained in the "Roll of the Monarchs of Ireland," in the last preceding chapter.)

39. Eochaidh Faobhar Glas: his son; the 17th Monarch.

40. Eanna Airgthach: his son; was the 21st Monarch; and the first who caused silver shields to be made.

41. Glas: his son.

42. Ros: his son.

43. Rotheacta: his son.

44. Fearard: his son.

45. Cas: his son,

46. Munmoin: his son; was the 25th Monarch; and the first who ordained his Nobles to wear gold chains about their necks.

47. Fualdergoid: his son; was the 26th Monarch; and the first who ordered his Nobility to wear gold rings on their fingers.

48. Cas Cedchaingnigh: his son. This Cas was a learned man; he revised the study of the laws, poetry, and other laudable sciences (which were) much eclipsed and little practised since the death of Amergin Glungheal, one of the sons of Milesius, who was their Druid or Arch-priest, and who was slain in battle by his brother Heremon soon after their brother Heber's death.

49. Failbhe Iolcorach: his son; was the first who ordained that stone walls should be built as boundaries between the neighbours' lands.

50. Ronnach: his son.

51. Rotheachta: his son; was the 35th Monarch.

52. Eiliomh Ollfhionach: his son.

53. Art Imleach: his son; the 38th Monarch.

54. Breas Rioghacta: his son; the 40th Monarch.

55. Seidnae Innaridh: his son; was the 43rd Monarch; and the first who, in Ireland, enlisted his soldiers in pay and under good discipline. Before his time, they had no other pay than what they could gain from their enemies.

56. Duach Fionn: his son; died B.C. 893.

57. Eanna Dearg: his son; was the 47th Monarch. In the twelfth year of his reign he died suddenly, with most of his retinue, adoring their false gods at Sliabh Mis, B.C. 880 years.

58. Lughaidh Iardhonn: his son.

59. Eochaidh (2): his son.

60. Lughaidh: his son; died B.C. 831.

61. Art (2): his son; was the 54th Monarch; and was slain by his successor in the Monarchy, who was uncle to the former Monarch.

62. Olioll Fionn: his son.

63. Eochaidh (3): his son.

64. Lughaidh Lagha: his son; died B.C. 730.

65. Reacht Righ-dearg: his son; was the 65th Monarch; and was called "Righ-dearg" or the red king, for having a hand in a woman's blood: having slain queen Macha of the line of Ir, and (see No. 64, on the "Roll of the Monarchs," page 60), the only woman that held the Monarchy of Ireland. He was a warlike Prince and fortunate in his undertakings. He went into Scotland with a powerful army to reduce to obedience the Pictish nation, then growing refractory in the payment of their yearly tribute to the Monarchs of Ireland; which having performed, he returned, and, after twenty years' reign, was slain in battle by his Heremonian successor, B.C. 633.

66. Cobthach Caomh: son of Reacht Righ-dearg.

67. Moghcorb: his son.

68. Fearcorb: his son.

69. Adhamhra Foltcain: his son; died, B.C. 412.

70. Niadhsedhaman: his son; was the 83rd Monarch. In his time the wild deer were, through the sorcery and witchcraft of his mother, usually driven home with the cows, and tamely suffered themselves to be milked every day.

71. Ionadmaor: his son; was the 87th Monarch.

72. Lughaidh Luaighne: his son; the 89th Monarch.

73. Cairbre Lusgleathan: his son.

74. Duach Dalladh Deadha: his son; was the 91st Monarch, and (except Crimthann, the 125th Monarch, was) the last of thirty-three Monarchs of the line of Heber that ruled the Kingdom; and but one more of them came to the Monarchy—namely, Brian Boroimhe, the thirty-first generation down from this Duach, who pulled out his younger brother Deadha's eyes (hence the epithet Dalladh, "blindness," applied to Deadha) for daring to come between him and the throne.

75. Eochaidh Garbh: his son.

76. Muireadach Muchna: his son.

77. Mofebhis: his wife. [In the ancient Irish Regal Roll the name of Mofebhis is by mistake entered after that of her husband, instead of the name of their son, Loich Mór; and, sooner than disturb the register numbers of the succeeding names, O'Clery thought best to let the name of Mofebhis remain on the Roll, but to point out the inaccuracy.]

78. Loich Mor: son of Muireadach and Mofebhis.

79. Eanna Muncain: his son.

80. Dearg Theine: his son. This Dearg had a competitor in the Kingdom of Munster, named Darin, of the sept of Lugaidh, son of Ithe, the first (Milesian) discoverer of Ireland; between whom it was agreed that their posterity should reign by turns, and when (one of) either of the septs was King, (one of) the other should govern in the civil affairs of the Kingdom; which agreement continued so, alternately, for some generations.

81. Dearg (2): son of Dearg Theine.

82. Magha Neid: his son.

83. Eoghan Mor [Owen Mor], or Eugene the Great: his son. This Eugene was commonly called "Mogha Nuadhad," and was a wise and politic prince and great warrior. From him Magh-Nuadhad (now "Maynooth") is so called; where a great battle was fought between him and Conn of the Hundred Battles, the 110th Monarch of Ireland, A.D. 122, with whom he was in continual wars, until at last, after many bloody battles, he forced him to divide the kingdom with him in two equal parts by the boundary of Esker Riada—a long ridge of Hills from Dublin to Galway; determining the south part to himself, which he called after his own name Leath Mogha or Mogha's Half (of Ireland), as the north part was called Leath Cuinn or Conn's Half; and requiring Conn to give his daughter Sadhbh (or Sabina) in marriage to his eldest son Olioll Olum. Beara, daughter of Heber, the great King of Castile (in Spain), was his wife, and the mother of Olioll Olum and of two daughters (who were named respectively), Caomheall and Scothniamh; after all, he was slain in Battle by the said Conn of the Hundred Battles.

84. Olioll Olum: son of Eoghan Mor; was the first of this line named in the Regal Roll to be king of both Munsters; for, before him, there were two septs that were alternately kings of Munster, until this Olioll married Sabina, daughter of the Monarch Conn of the Hundred Battles, and widow of Mac Niadh, chief of the other sept of Darin, descended from Ithe, and by whom she had one son named Lughaidh, commonly called "Luy Maccon;" who, when he came to man's age, demanded from Olioll, his stepfather, the benefit of the agreement formerly made between their ancestors; which Olioll not only refused to grant, but he also banished Maccon out of Ireland; who retired into Scotland, where, among his many friends and relations, he soon collected a strong party, returned with them to Ireland, and with the help and assistance of the rest of his sept who joined with them, he made war upon Olioll; to whose assistance his (Olioll's) brother-in-law, Art-Ean-Fhear, then Monarch of Ireland, came with a good army; between whom and Maccon was fought the great and memorable battle of Magh Mucromha (or Muckrove), near Athenry, where the Monarch Art, together with seven of Olioll's nine sons, by Sabina, lost their lives, and their army was totally defeated and routed. By this great victory Maccon not only recovered his right to the Kingdom of Munster, but the Monarchy also, wherein he maintained himself for thirty years; leaving the Kingdom of Munster to his stepfather Olioll Olum, undisturbed.

After the battle, Olioll, having but two sons left alive, namely Cormac-Cas and Cian, and being very old, settled his kingdom upon Cormac, the elder son of the two, and his posterity; but soon after being informed that Owen Mór, his eldest son (who was slain in the battle of Magh Mucromha, above mentioned), had by a Druid's daughter issue, named Feach (Fiacha Maolleathan as he was called), born after his father's death, Olioll ordained that Cormac should be king during his life, and Feach to succeed him, and after him Cormac's son, and their posterity to continue so by turns; which (arrangement) was observed between them for many generations, sometimes dividing the kingdom between them, by the name of South, or North Munster, or Desmond, and Thomond.

From these three sons of Olioll Olum are descended the Hiberian nobility and gentry of Munster and other parts of Ireland; viz., from Owen Mór are descended M'Carthy, O'Sullivan, O'Keeffe, and the rest of the ancient nobility of Desmond; from Cormac-Cas are descended O'Brien, MacMahon, O'Kennedy, and the rest of the nobility and gentry of Thomond; and from Cian [Kian] are descended O'Carroll (of Ely-O'Carroll), O'Meagher, O'Hara, O'Gara, etc.

85. Owen Mor (2): son of Olioll Olum.

86. Fiacha (or Feach) Maolleathan: his son.

87. Olioll Flann-beag: his son. This Olioll, King of Munster for thirty years, had an elder brother, Olioll Flann-mór, who, having no issue, adopted his younger brother to be his heir; conditionally, that his name should be inserted in the Pedigree as the father of this Olioll; and so it is in several copies of the Munster antiquaries, with the reason thereof, as here given.

88. Lughaidh: son of Olioll Flann-beag; had two younger brothers named Main Mun-Chain, and Daire (or Darius) Cearb; and by a second marriage he had two sons—1. Lughach, 2. Cobthach.

89. Corc: eldest son of Lughaidh. This Corc, to shun the unnatural love of his stepmother, fled in his youth to Scotland, where he married Mong-fionn, daughter of Feredach Fionn, otherwise called Fionn Cormac, King of the Picts (who, in Irish, are called Cruithneach or Cruithneans), by whom he had several sons, whereof Main Leamhna, who remained in Scotland, was the ancestor of "Mor Mhaor Leamhna," i.e., Great Stewards of Lennox; from whom were descended the Kings of Scotland and England of the Stewart or Stuart Dynasty, and Cronan, who married Cairche, daughter of Leaghaire MacNiall, the 128th Monarch of Ireland, by whom he got territory in Westmeath, from her called "Cuircneach," now called Dillon's Country.

This Corc, also, although never converted to Christianity, was one of the three Kings or Princes appointed by the triennial parliament held at Tara in St. Patrick's time, "to review, examine, and reduce into order all the monuments of antiquity, genealogies, chronicles, and records of the kingdom;" the other two being Daire or Darius, a Prince of Ulster, and Leary the Monarch. With these three were associated for that purpose St. Patrick, St. Benignus, and St. Carioch; together with Dubhthach, Fergus, and Rosse Mac Trichinn, the chief antiquaries of Ireland (at the time). From Corc, the City of Cork is called, according to some authors.

90. Nathfraoch: son of Corc; had a brother named Cas.

91. Aongus or Æneas: his son. This was the first Christian King of Munster. He had twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters, whereof he devoted to the service of God one-half of both sexes.

When this King was baptized by St. Patrick, the Saint offering to fasten his Staff or Crozier in the ground, accidentally happened to pierce the foot of Æneas through, whereby he lost much blood; but thinking it to be part of the ceremony (of Baptism), he patiently endured it until the Saint had done. He ordained three pence per annum from every person that should be baptized throughout Munster, to be paid to St. Patrick and the Church in manner following: viz., five hundred cows, five hundred stone of iron, five hundred shirts, five hundred coverlets, and five hundred sheep, every third year. He reigned 36 years, at the end whereof he and his wife Eithne, daughter of Crimthann-Cas, King of Leinster, were slain.

92. Felim, his son; was the second Christian King of Munster. His eleven brothers that did not enter into Religious Orders were—1. Eocha, third Christian King of Munster, ancestor of O'Keeffe; 2. Dubh Ghilcach; 3. Breasail, from whom descended the great antiquary and holy man Cormac Mac Culenan, the 39th Christian King of Munster, and Archbishop of Cashel, author of the ancient Irish Chronicles called the "Psalter of Cashel;" 4. Senach; 5. Aodh (or Hugh) Caoch (Eithne was mother of the last three); 6. Carrthann; 7. Nafireg; 8. Aodh; 9. Felim; 10. Losian; and 11. Dathi; from all of whom many families are descended.

93. Crimthann: his son.

94. Aodh Dubh [Duff]: his son; reigned 15 years.

95. Failbhé Flann: his son; was the 16th Christian King of Munster, and reigned 40 years. From this Failbhé Flann the MacCarthy families are descended. He had a brother named Fingin,[2] who reigned before him, and who is said by the Munster antiquaries, to have been the elder; this Fingin was the ancestor of O'Sullivan. As the seniority of these two families has been a disputed question, we here go no further in the descent of the House of Heber: we commence the "MacCarthy" genealogy with this (No. 95) Failbhé Flann; and the "O'Sullivan" genealogy with Fingin, his brother. Each of these genealogies can be seen, infra, in its alphabetical order.

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NOTES

[1] Munster: A short time before the Christian era, Eochy Feidlioch, the 93rd Milesian Monarch of Ireland, divided the Kingdom into five Provinces, namely—Ulster, Connaught, Leinster, and the two Provinces of Munster. In Irish the name of a Province is Coigeadh [coo-gu], which signifies "a fifth part."

Tuathal Teachtmar (or Tuathal the Legitimate), the 106th Monarch, made, in the beginning of the second century, a new division of Ireland into five provinces; and having taken a portion from each of the Provinces of Leinster, Munster, Ulster, and Connaught, formed the new Province or Kingdom of Meath. This division continued for many centuries, and even long after the Anglo-Norman Invasion. Thus the Irish Government was a Pentarchy; a supreme Monarch being elected to preside over all the Provincial Kings, and designated Ard-Righ or High King (righ: Irish a king; Hind. raja; Lat. rex; gen. regis; Fr. roi). The Kingdom of Munster (in Irish Mumha, Mumhan, and Mumhain) derived its name , according to O'Flaherty's "Ogygia," from Eochaidh Mumha, who was King of Munster, and the 19th Monarch of Ireland. Munster is latinised "Momonia." Ancient Munster comprised the present counties of Tipperary, Waterford, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and part of Kilkenny; to which, in the latter part of the third century, was added the territory now forming the County of Clare, by Lughaidh Meann, King of Munster, of the race of the Dalcassians, who took it from Connaught and added it to Munster.

Ancient Munster is mentioned under the following divisions, namely—Tuadh Mumhan or North Munster, anglicised "Thomond;" Deas Mumhan or South Munster, rendered "Desmond;" Urmhumha, Oirmhumha or East Munster, rendered "Ormond;" and Iar Mumhan or West Munster.

Thomond, under its ancient Kings, extended from the Isles of Arran, off the coast of Galway, to the mountain of Eibline, near Cashel in Tipperary; thence to Cairn Feareadaigh, now Knock-Aine in the County Limerick; and from Leim Chucullain (or Cuchullin's Leap), now Loop-Head, at the mouth of the river Shannon in the county of Clare, to Sliabh Dala mountains in Ossory, on the borders of Tipperary, Kilkenny, and Queen's County; thus comprising the present counties of Clare and Limerick, with the greater part of Tipperary; but, in after times, Thomond was confined to the present county of Clare.

Ormond was one of the large Divisions of ancient Munster. Ancient Ormond, extended from Gabhran (now Gowran) in the county of Kilkenny, westward to Cnamhchoill or Cleathchoill, near the town of Tipperary; and from Bearnan Eile (now Barnanelly), a parish in the county of Tipperary (in which is situated the Devil's Bit Mountain); and from thence southward to Oilean Ui-Bhric or O'Bric's Island near Bonmahon, on the coast of Waterford; thus comprising the greater part of Tipperary, with parts of the counties of Kilkenny and Waterford. The name of Ormond is still retained in the two baronies of "Ormond," in Tipperary.

Desie or Desies was an ancient territory, comprising the greater part of Waterford, with a part of Tipperary; and got its name from the tribe of the Deisigh, also called Desii. These Desii were descended from Fiacha Suidhe, a brother of the Monarch Conn of the Hundred Battles; who, in Meath, possessed a large territory called from them Deise, or Deise Teamrach, that is, "Deise of Tara"—because situated near Tara; and the name of this ancient territory is still retained in the two baronies of "Deece," in the county Meath. In the reign of Cormac Mac Art, the 115th Monarch, Aongus or Æneas, Prince of Deise in Meath, and grandson of Fiacha Suidhe, resenting the exclusion of his own branch of the family from the Monarchy, waged a rebellion against Cormac Mac Art; and with a body of forces broke into the palace of Tara, wounded Cormac, and killed his son Ceallach; but Cormac, having quelled the rebellion in seven successive battles, drove Aongus and his accomplices into Munster, where they got settlements from Olioll Olum, then king of Munster, who granted them the lands extending from the river Suir southward to the sea, and from Lismore to Cean Criadain, now Creadon Head: thus comprising almost the whole of the territory afterwards called the county Waterford; and they gave to that country the name of Deise or Nandesi, which, in Munster, was called Deisi, to distinguish it from Deise, in Meath. The Desians becoming numerous and powerful in Munster, Aongus, King of Munster in the fifth century, conferred on them additional lands, and annexed to their territory Magh Feimin, which extended north of the river Suir as far as Corca Eathrach, comprising the country called Machaire Caisil (or the plain of Cashel), and districts about Clonmel; forming the present barony of Middlethird, with part of Offa, in Tipperary. The territory comprised in this grant of King Aongus was distinguished by the name of Deise in Tuaisceart or North Desie, and the old territory in Waterford was called Deise Deisceart or South Desie. The name Desie is still retained in the two baronies of "Decies," in the county Waterford.

Desmond: The territory called "Desmond" comprised, according to Smith in his Histories of Cork and Kerry, the whole of the present county of Cork, and the greater part of Kerry, together with a portion of Waterford, and also a small part of the southof Tipperary, bordering on Cork, called the Eoghanact Caisil: thus extending from Brandon Mountain, in the barony of Corcaguiney, county Kerry, to the river Blackwater, near Lismore, in the county Waterford; but, in after times, under the Fitzgeralds, Earls of Desmond, this territory was confined to the baronies of Bear and Bantry, and other portions of the south-west of Cork, together with that part of Kerry south of the river Mang. 

West Munster: The north-western part of Kerry, with a large portion of Limerick, extending to the Shannon, and comprising the present baronies of Upper and Lower Connello, was called Iar Mumhan or West Munster. This territory is connected with some of the earliest events in Irish history. Partholan, who planted the first colony in Ireland, sailed from Greece through Muir Toirian (the ancient Irish name of the Mediterranean Sea), and landed on the coast of Ireland at Inver Seeine—now the Bay of Kenmare, in Kerry.

The Milesians of the race of Heber Fionn possessed the greater part of Munster; but the descendants of Ithe, the uncle of Milesius of Spain, also possessed in early times a great part of that province. The race of Heber furnished most of the Kings of Munster, and many of them were also Monarchs of Ireland. The Ithians or the race of Ithe also furnished many Kings of Munster, and some of them were also Monarchs of Ireland. By the old annalists the Heberians were called Deirgtheine, after one of their ancient Kings of that name; the Ithians were also called Dairiné, from one of their Kings so named.

The Clan-na-Deaghaidh settled in Munster a short time before the Christian era. They were named "Degadians," from Deagadh or Deadha their chief; and "Ernans," from Olioll Earon, a Heremonian prince in Ulster, and an ancestor of Deag (see No. 68 in the "Genealogy of the Kings of Dalriada.")

The Degadians or Ernans being expelled from Ulster by the race of Ir (or the Clan-na-Rory), went to Munster, where they were favourably received and had lands allotted to them by Duach, King of Munster, of the race of Heber, and the 91st Monarch of Ireland.

According to Keating, O'Flaherty, O'Halloran, and other historians, the Clan-na-Deaghaidh or Ernans became very powerful, and were the chief military commanders of Munster, and masters nearly of the entire country: some of them became Kings of Munster, and three of them also Monarchs of Ireland—namely, 1. Edersceal, 2. Conaire Mor, 3. Conaire the Second, who were respectively the 95th, 97th, and the 111th Monarchs of Ireland. This King Conaire the Second (or Conaire Mac Mogha Laine) was married to Sarad, sister of King Art Eanfhear, his successor in the Monarchy: of this marriage was Cairbre Riada, from who were descended the Dalriadians, Princes of Dalriada in Ulster; and who was the first King of Dalriada in Scotland, of which Loarn, the maternal grandfather of Fergus Mór Mac Earca—the founder of the Milesian Monarchy in Scotland, was the last.

About the beginning of the Christian era, Eochaidh Abhra Ruadh (or Eochy of the Red Brows or Eyelids), of the race of Heber, and a man of gigantic stature, was King of South Munster; and Conrigh Mac Dairé, one of the chiefs of the Deagas or Ernans, was Prince of North Munster, and was succeeded by Cairbre Fionn Mór, son of the Monarch Conaire Mór, as King of Munster. In the second century, Eochaidh, the son of Daire, succeeded as King of both Munsters. In the same century, Eoghan Mór, the celebrated King of Munster (also called Eoghan Taidleach or Owen the Splendid), of the race of Heber, and maternally descended from the Clan-na-Deaga, was a great warrior. The Clan-na-Deaga or Ernans becoming so powerful at the time, as nearly to assume the entire sovereignty of Munsterer—to the exclusion of the race of Heber—they were attacked and conquered by Eoghan Mór, who expelled them from Munster, except such families of them as yielded him submission.

Conn of the Hundred Battles, having succeeded Cahir Mór as (the 110th) Monarch of Ireland, had long and fierce contests with the above-named Eoghan [Owen] Mor for the sovereignty of the country; but they at length agreed to divide the Kingdom between them, by a line drawn direct from Dublin to Galway: the northern half, consisting of the Kingdoms of Meath, Ulster, and Connaught, being Conn's share, and thence called Leath Cuinn, signifying "Conn's Half" (of Ireland); and the southern portion, or Kingdoms of Leinster and Munster, being allotted to Owen Mór, or Mogha Nuadhad, as he was called, and hence named Leath Mogha, or "Mogha's Half"; and this division of Ireland was long recognized in after times, and is often mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters. But Owen Mór was afterwards defeated and forced to fly to Spain, where he lived for some time in exile; and there entering into a confederacy with Fraoch, his brother-in-law, who was Prince of Castile, they collected a powerful army with which they landed in Ireland, to recover the sovereignty from Conn of the Hundred Battles; and both armies fought a tremendous battle on the Plain of Moylena, in which Conn was victorious, and Owen Mór was slain. According to O'Flaherty, this battle was fought in the ancient barony of Fircall, in the King's County, where there are still to be seen two hillocks or sepulchral mounds, in one of which was buried the body of Owen Mór, and in the other that of Fraoch, the Spaniard, who was also slain in that battle.

Olioll Olum, son of Owen Mór, having refused to grant to Lugaidh Maccon the portion of Munster to which he was by a former arrangement entitled, Lugaidh [Luy] contended with Olioll, who defeated him and Nemeth, Prince of the Ernans, in a great battle; after which Olioll became sole King of Munster.

Lugaidh Maccon having been expelled from Munster by Olioll Olum, and banished to Britain, projected an invasion of Ireland; and, assisted by the Britons and other foreign auxiliaries under the command of Beine Briot (or Beine the Briton), who was one of the most famous warriors of that age, and son of the King of Wales, landed a powerful army in Galway. Olioll's cause was espoused by his brother-in-law Art-Ean-Fhear (then Monarch of Ireland, and the uncle of Lugaidh Maccon), and by Forga, King of Connaught; who collected their forces and fought a great battle with the foreigners, in the county of Galway, where the latter were victorious; and after which Lugaidh Maccon became Monarch of Ireland, leaving Munster to his stepfather Olioll. In this battle the Monarch Art was slain; and his head cut off near a brook or pool, which, from that circumstance, was called Turloch Airt—situated between Moyvola and Killornan in the county of Galway. According to Connellan, the Irish kerns and galloglasses generally decapitated the chiefs they had slain in battle, as they considered no man actually dead until his head was cut off.

Olioll Olum had three sons named Eoghan, Cormac Cas and Cian [Kian]; and by his will he made a regulation that the kingdom of Munster should be ruled alternately by one of the posterity of Eoghan (or Eugene) Mor and Cormac Cas. This Cormac Cas was married to Oriund, daughter of King of Denmark, and by her had a son named Mogha Corb. From Cormac Cas, king of Munster, or according to others, his descendant Cas, who was king of Thomond in the fifth century, their posterity got the name Dal Cais, anglicised "Dalcassians;" the various families of whom were located chiefly in that part of Thomond which forms the present county of Clare; and the ruling family of them were the O'Briens, Kings of Thomond. From Eoghan, the eldest of the sons of Olioll Olum, were descended the Eoghanachts or "Eugenians," who were, alternately with the Dalcassians, Kings of Munster, from the third to the eleventh century. The Eugenians possessed Desmond or South Munster. The head family of the Eugenians were the MacCarthys, princes of Desmond. From Cian, the third son of Olioll Olum, were descended the Clan Cian, who were located chiefly in Ormond; and the chief of which families were the O'Carrolls, princes of Ely. In the latter part of the third century, Lugaidh Meann, King of Munster, of the race of the Dalcassians, took from Connaught the territory afterwards called the county of Clare, and added it to Thomond. In the seventh century, Guaire, the 12th Christian King of Connaught, having collected a great army, marched into Thomond, for the purpose of recovering the territory of Clare, which bad been taken from Connaught; and fought a great battle against the Munster forces commanded by Failbhe Flann and Dioma, Kings of Munster, but the Conacians were defeated. In the third century, Fiacha Maolleathan, King of Munster, and the grandson of Olioll Olum, had his residence at Rathnaoi, near Cashel, now called Knockraffan; and this Fiacha granted to Cairbre Musc, son of the king of Meath, and a famous bard, as a reward tor his poems, an extensive territory, called from him, Muscrith Tire, comprising the present baronies of "Ormond," in the county of Tipperary. The Kings of Desmond of the Eoghan or Eugenian race, were also styled Kings of Cashel, as they chiefly resided there,

The name "Cashel" (in Irish Caisiol or Caiseal] signifies a stone fortress or castle; or, according to others, a rock; or, as stated in Cormac's Glossary, is derived from Cios, rent, and ail, a rock, signifying the rock of tribute: as the people paid tribute there to their Kings. This Fortress of the Kings was situated on the great rock of Cashel; and Corc, King of Munster, of the Owen Mór or Eugenian race, in the fourth century, was the first who made Cashel a royal residence. This Corc, residing sometimes in Albany, married Mongfionn, daughter of Fearadach, King of the Picts—the Princes descended from this marriage were progenitors of the earls of Lennox and Marr, who were "Great Stewards" of Scotland, and a quo the surname Stewart. Aongus (or Æneas), who was the first Christian King of Munster, was the grandson of this Corc. In the ninth and tenth centuries the Danes overran different parts of Ireland, and made settlements, particularly in the sea-ports of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Limerick, and Cork. In the middle of the tenth century, Ceallachan, King of Cashel, who was of the Eugenian race, and a celebrated warrior, carried on long and fierce contests with the Danes; whom he defeated in many battles. Ceallachan died, A.D. 952.

[2] Fingin: If we look to the Roll of "The Kings of Munster" (in the Appendix), under the heading "Provincial Kings," we find that Fingin, son of Hugh Dubh, is No. 14 on that Roll, while his brother Failbhe is No. 16 thereon. The MacCarthy's, in our opinion, owed the prominent position they held in Desmond at the period of the English invasion of Ireland, not to primogeniture, but to the disturbed state of Munster during the Danish wars, in which their immediate ancestors took a prominent and praiseworthy part.

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