KILCASKIN, a parish, in the barony of BERE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 16 miles (S. S. W.) from Castletown; containing 4600 inhabitants. This parish, which extends for more than ten miles along the shore of Bantry bay, comprises 35,701 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £3295 per annum. The greater portion is wild and mountainous, and not more than one-sixth is under cultivation; several of the mountains afford pasture on their sides and summits, but others are rocky and barren. The loftiest is Hungry hill, 2160 feet above the level of the sea, and remarkable for its singular and picturesque waterfall, which, descending from a height of nearly 800 feet and frequently broken in its fall by ledges of projecting rock, forms a magnificent and beautiful cascade; the water issues from a lake near the summit, and after its descent passes by Ardrigoole and falls into the bay. Four miles to the east of this mountain is the large Sugar Loaf, which is 1112 feet high; and of the other mountains in this parish, the principal are the Knocknafouka, the Ghoul, and the Esk: along their summits runs the boundary line between the counties of Cork and Kerry. In this parish is also part of the romantic and celebrated district of Glengariff, comprising the eastern portion, and the scene of a hard-fought battle between the English forces under Sir C. Wilmot, and the native Irish under the Prince of Bear and Bantry, in which the latter were defeated with great loss. [A more detailed description of Glengariff is given in the article on Kilmacomogue.]

The principal seats are the Lodge, the handsome residence of the Earl of Bantry; Reemeen Cottage, of R. White, Esq.; and Reen Lodge, of the Rev. R. H. Wright. There is an extensive slate quarry at Roosk, close to the sea-shore. Iron and copper-ore abound in various parts of the parish, but neither is at present worked: the iron-ore was formerly very extensively procured, and large smelting-works were built at Glengariff and Ardrigoole; of the latter, very considerable remains exist, forming an interesting feature on the banks of the river. There are constabulary police stations at Ardrigoole and Glengariff, and a coast-guard station at the latter place, forming part of the district of Castletown. A manorial court is held at Ardrigoole every third Thursday, for the recovery of debts under 40s.

The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ross, the rectory constituting part of the union and corps of the archdeaconry of Ross, and the vicarage united with that of Bunnane: the tithes amount to £380, of which one-half is payable to the archdeacon and the other to the vicar. The church is a small edifice with a low square tower, situated at the base of the rugged mountain of Ardrigoole; it was built in 1809, at an expense of £500, a gift from the late Board of First Fruits, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £190 towards its repair. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions this parish is in the diocese of Kerry, and is the head of a union or district, comprising also that of Bunnane; there are three chapels, situated respectively at Mass-mount near Ardrigoole, Glengariff, and Bunnane. There are eight private schools, in which are about 430 children.

At Daraheen-Dharmuda a battle was fought between O'Sullivan Bear and O'Donovan, in which the latter was slain. The ruins of the old church are situated in a deep recess in the mountains, one mile east from Ardrigoole; at Drumlane is a very perfect fort, and there are several others in various parts of the parish. At Leitrim is an upright stone without any inscription, called a Gollane, and there are several others of the same name in the barony; near the former are vast piles of loose stones heaped together in the greatest confusion.

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