CARRIGALINE, a parish

From A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, 1837

CARRIGALINE, a parish, partly in the county of the city of CORK, and partly in the barony of KINNALEA, but chiefly in that of KERRICURRIHY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 7 miles (S. E.) from Cork; containing 7375 inhabitants. This place was in early times called Beavor, or Bebhor, and derived its name from the abrupt rocky cliff on which are the remains of the ancient castle, built by Milo de Cogan in the reign of King John, and for nearly two centuries occupied by the Earls of Desmond, by whom it was forfeited, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The castle, together with the lands of Carrigaline and Ballinrea, was then granted by the queen to Sir Anthony St. Leger, who demised them to Stephen Golding, from whom they were purchased by Sir Richard Boyle, afterwards Earl of Cork, and from him descended to the present proprietor, the Earl of Shannon.

In 1568, the Lord-Deputy Sidney, after relieving the Lady St. Leger in Cork, advanced against this fortress, which he took from James Fitzmaurice after an obstinate resistance, and from this time during the entire reign of Elizabeth it had the reputation of being impregnable. In 1589, Sir Francis Drake, with a squadron of five ships, being chased by a Spanish fleet of superior force, ran into Cork harbour; and sailing up Crosshaven, moored his squadron in a safe basin, sheltered by Corribiny Hill, close under Coolmore. The Spaniards pursued, but, being unacquainted with the harbour, sailed round the shores without discovering the English fleet, and giving up the search, left it here in perfect security. The basin in which Sir Francis lay has since been called Drake's pool.

The parish is situated on the road from Cork to Tracton, and contains 14,254 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £16,606 per annum-; the surface is pleasingly undulated, and the soil is fertile; a considerable part is under an improved system of tillage, and the remainder is in demesne, meadow, or pasture land. There is neither waste land nor bog; coal, which is landed at several small quays here, is the chief fuel. A light brown and purplish clay-slate is found; and limestone of very superior quality is raised at Shanbally, in large blocks, and after being hewn into columns, tombstones, &c, is shipped to Cork and other places.

The appearance of the country is beautifully varied: the views from the high grounds are extensive and picturesque,' commanding the course of the Awenbwuy, with its capacious estuary, called Crosshaven, and embellished with numerous gentlemen's seats. The principal are Maryborough, the residence of W. H. Worth Newenham, Esq., situated in a beautiful demesne of 545 acres, with a lofty square tower a little to the east of the house, which commands a magnificent prospect of the town and harbour of Cove, and the rich scenery of the river; Mount-Rivers, of M. Roberts, Esq.; and Ballybricken, of D. Conner, Esq. The village has a very pleasing appearance; it consists of several good houses and a number of decent cottages, extending into the parish of Kilmoney, on the south side of the river, over which is a bridge of three arches.

There are two large boulting-mills, the property of Messrs. Michael Roberts and Co., which grind 12,000 sacks of flour annually, of which the greater part is shipped for England from Cork. The trade consists chiefly in the export of corn, flour, and potatoes, and the import of coal and culm. The channel of the river has been lately deepened six feet, and vessels can now deliver their cargoes at the bridge. A creek runs up to Shanbally, and another forms the channel of Douglas, both of which are navigable for vessels of 70 tons' burden, which bring up lime, sand, and manure, and take away limestone and bricks, the latter of which are made near Douglas. Salmon, white trout, sole, plaice, and oysters of superior quality, are obtained in these inlets, and, in the latter part of the summer, herrings are occasionally taken in great quantities. The river Awenbwuy, winding through a rich corn country, is well situated for commerce, and several large mills are in course of erection on its banks. Fairs are held in Carrigaline on Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, Aug. 12th, and Nov. 8th, for cattle, sheep, and pigs. There is a penny post to Cork; and a chief constabulary police force has been stationed here. Petty sessions are held in the court-house every Tuesday, and a manorial court once in three weeks.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the Earl of Shannon: the tithes amount to £1080. The church is a very handsome edifice of hewn limestone, in the later English style of architecture, with a massive square tower crowned with pinnacles and surmounted by an elegant and lofty octagonal spire pierced with lights: it was erected in 1823, near the site of the former church, and enlarged in 1835, by the addition of a north transept; the windows are very light, chaste, and beautiful, particularly the eastern one, the upper part of which is ornamented with stained glass. Near the west front is a lofty arch, beneath which is an altar-tomb of grey marble, with a recumbent leaden figure, now much mutilated, of Lady Susanna Newenham, who died in 1754. A chapel of ease has been built at the village of Douglas, in the northern division of the parish, within the liberties of the city of Cork. There is no glebe-house, but a glebe of 6a. 3r. 9p.

In the R. C. divisions the parish partly forms the head of a union or district, comprising the four ploughlands called Carrigaline and the parishes of Templebready and Kilmoney, and is partly in the union of Douglas or Ballygervin, and partly in that of Passage: the chapel is in that part of the village of Carrigaline which is on the south side of the river. The male and female parochial schools are supported by subscription; the school-rooms were built in 1834. At Raheens are schools for boys and girls, the former supported by a donation of £50 per ann. from W. H. W. Newenham, Esq., and the latter by Mrs. Newenham; a school is aided by annual subscriptions, amounting to £4, and there are other hedge schools in the parish, altogether affording instruction to about 450 children, and a Sunday school. Here is also a dispensary. At Ballinrea there is a mineral spring, which is considered to be of the same kind as that of Tunbridge Wells, and has been found efficacious in cases of debility; and near it is a holy well, dedicated to St. Renogue, which is resorted to by the country people on the 24th of June.

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