The Phonology of an East Antrim Dialect

Robert J. Gregg

4 The Vowels of Stressed Syllables

4.1 The Short Vowels

4.1.1. ME a

Short a in ME usually gives /a/ in Glenoe but also /e̥/ in a number of cases. There is no rounding after /w/ or before /n̥/. The group -ar often becomes /e̥r/ and -al followed by d becomes /e̍ül/ with loss of d, while -al final becomes /o̥:/ with loss of l. The shift of /a/ to /e̥/ often takes place before /d/ and -ss and also in contact with the velars, in words borrowed from or influenced by Larne. Lengthening is determined by phonetic context (see above, 3.3.4).

4.1.2 ME a

(A) from Anglian æ, a (West Germanic a)

1. becomes Glenoe /a/.

/anse̍r/ 'answer', /ant/ 'ant', /ba:d/ 'bad, sick', /bra:n/ 'brand', /gale̍se̍z/ 'braces', /ha:n/ 'hand', /hanfl/ 'handful', /kla:p/ 'clap, cow-dung', /klate̍r/ 'clatter, large quantity', /la:m/ 'lamb', /ma:n/ 'man, husband', /ma:t/ 'mat', /θa:tś/ 'thatch', etc.

Note: Beside the normal /ba:g/ 'bag', /ba:k/ 'back', /bla:k/ 'black', /ka:n/ sb. 'can', /ka:nl/ 'candle', /ka:p/ 'cap', /ka:t/ 'cat', /sla:k/ 'slack', forms with /e̥/ for the true dialect /a/ in contact with velars have occasionally intruded from Larne, viz. /be̥:g/, /be̥:k/, /ble̥:k/, /ke̥:n/, /ke̥:t/, /ke̥ndl/, /ke̥:p/, /sle̥:k/.

In the case of axe, flax, and sack no /a/-forms exist, an indication that these are also probably borrowings from Larne.

2. becomes Glenoe /e̥/.

/e̥:ks/ 'axe', /e̥pl/ 'apple', /fe̥de̍r/ 'father', /fle̥:ks/ 'flax', /ge̥de̍r/ 'gather', /gle̥:d/ 'glad', /he̥lte̍r/ 'halter', /he̥me̍r/ 'hammer', /kre̥dl/ 'cradle', /re̥de̍r/ 'rather', /se̥:k/ sb. 'sack', vb. 'dismiss', /se̥te̍(r)de/ 'Saturday'.

(B) from Scandinavian a

1. becomes Glenoe /a/.

/hansl/ 'handsel', /ra:g & re̥:g/ 'rag', /ranse̥:k/ 'ransack', /stage̍r & ste̹ge̍r/ 'stagger', /sta:k & ste̥:k/ 'stack'.

2. becomes Glenoe /e/.

/bre̥kn/ 'bracken', /dre̥:g/ 'drag', /fle̥:gz/ 'flagstones', /fle̥:t/ 'flat', /ne̥:g/ 'scold', /skre̥ge/ 'thin', /sne̥:g/ 'impediment, obstacle', i.e. mostly in contact with velars.

(C) from Old French a (in closed syllables and syllables originally unaccented)

1. becomes Glenoe /a/.

/bagetś/ 'baggage', /dźake̍t & dźe̥ke̍t/ 'jacket', /gale̍p/ 'gallop', /gra:n/ 'grand', /ka:tś & ke̥:ts/ 'catch', /mate̍r (sb.) & me̥te̍r (vb.)/ 'matter', /ra:t/ 'rat', /śame/ 'chamois', /ta:p/ vb. & sb. 'tap', /tśapl/ 'chapel', /vaĺje/ 'value', /vaĺje̍bl/ 'valuable', etc.

2. becomes Glenoe /e̥/.

/bre̥nś/ 'branch', /he̥nś/ 'haunch' (from Old French hanche), /ste̥nśl/ 'stanchion (of a window)', with n-l interchange; in Mid-North Antrim: /ste̥nśe̍r/, /tre̥vl/ 'travel, walk'. Note the vowel in /to̥:sl/ tassel (from Old French tas(s)el; ? confusion with tassel (sb 2) in Survey of English Dialects with alternative form torsel).

(D) Other words with /a/ of obscure origin, in some cases undoubtedly Gaelic

/bra:t/ 'brat', /bratl/ 'peal of thunder', /dra:b/ 'dew', /dźa:x/ 'clumsy person', /dźa:g & dźe̥:g/ vb. 'prick', sb. 'thorn', /dźa:p/ 'splash', /fla:m/ 'flatter, humbug', /ga:m & ga:m(f)e̍re̍l/ 'a fool', /ha:p/ 'tuck up', /kane/ 'cautious', /paxl/ 'small quantity, clumsy person', /śane̍x/ vb. 'gossip', /ra:m-sta:m/ 'headlong', /skra:b/ 'scratch viciously', /spraxl/ 'sprawl'.

4.1.3 ME a before s,f th

(A) from Anglian ae, a

1. becomes Glenoe /a/.

/ba:θ/ 'bath', /da:ft/ 'daft', /fasn/ 'fasten', /ka:f/ 'chaff', /la:st/ sb. & adj. 'last', /pa:d/ 'path' (cp. a local road known as the Paith /pe:θ/), /wa:ś/ 'wash'. Also in the following words which shortened OE áe to a in ME: /a:ks & e̥:ks & a:st/ 'ask', /bla:st/ 'blast'.

2. becomes Glenoe /e̥/.

/bre̥:s/ 'brass', /gle̥:s/ 'glass', /gre̥:s/ 'grass', /he̥:sp/ 'hasp', /ple̥ste̍r/ 'plaster'. Note: /e:ś/ 'ash (tree)'.

(B) from Scandinavian a

1. becomes Glenoe /a/: /a:ś/ 'ash', /ka:st & ke̥:st/ 'cast'.

2. becomes Glenoe /e̥/: /ble̥de̍r/ 'talk nonsense' (but cp. /bladre/ 'riff-raff').

(C) from Old French a, becomes Glenoe /a/.

/basket/ 'basket', /faśn/ 'fashion', /kasl & ke̥sl/ 'castle', /pa:s/ 'pass', /pa:sedź/ 'passage', /pastśe̍r/ 'pasture', /raske̍l/ 'rascal', /sa:ś/ 'sash (of a window)'.

(D) in words of doubtful origin, becomes Glenoe /a/.

/ba:ś/ 'bash', /da:ś/ 'dash', /la:s/ lass', /laśe̍r/ 'eye-lash', /ma:ś/ 'mash'.

4.1.4 ME a after w, wh, qu, squ, always remains Glenoe /a/

(A) from Anglian ae, a

/hwa:t & hwvt/ 'what', /swale̍/ sb. 'swallow', /swa:n/ 'swan', /swa:p/ 'exchange', /swa:rd/ 'row of mown grass' (? confusion between OE swaeth and sweard), /wa:ks & we̥:ks/ 'wax', /wa:sp/ 'wasp', /wa:te̍r/ 'water', /wa:tś/ 'watch', /wa:z & wvz/ 'was'.

(/hwvt/, /wvz/ perhaps from weak /e̍/ in unemphatic positions).

(B) from Scandinavian a

/wa:l (& we̥:l & we:l)/ 'choose, select', /wa:nt/ 'lack'.

(C) from Old French a

/kwale̍te/ 'quality', /kwa:re/ 'quarry', /skwa:ś/ 'squash', /wale̍p/ 'wallop'.

(D) in words of doubtful origin

/skwande̍r/ 'squander', /swamp/ 'swamp'.

4.1.5 ME a followed by ng remains Glenoe /a/

(A) from OE a

/bela:n̥/ 'belong', /e̍la:n̥/ 'along', /ga:n̥/ 'gang', /hwa:n̥/ 'thong' (from OE thwang with loss of th, leaving unvoiced w).(48)

Except /stro̥:n̥/ 'strong'.

(B) from Scandinavian a

/ba:n̥ & be̥n̥/ 'bang', /ba:n̥k/ 'hill-slope', /ra:n̥/ 'wrong', /tan̥kl/ 'tangle, type of sea-weed' (cp. Norwegian taangel).

(C) from Old French a

/blan̥ke̍t/ 'blanket'; but note: /le̥n̥wedź/ 'language'.

(D) in words of doubtful origin

/kan̥l/ 'to quarrel, bicker', /lan̥l/ 'tie fore and hind leg of goat together', /sa:n̥ & se̥:n̥/ 'a mild oath' (from French sang?), /spa:n̥/ 'jump'.

4.1.6 ME ar followed by a consonant gives Glenoe /ar/.

(A) from Anglian ear, ar

/hardn & harn/ 'harden', /ark/ 'meal bin', /harp/ sb. & vb. 'harp', /sward/ 'swath', /swa:rm/ 'swarm', /warde̍r/ 'warder', /wa:rm/ 'warm', /wa:rn/ 'warn', /wart/ 'wart'.

(B) from Scandinavian ar

/bark/ 'bark (of a tree)', /harś/ 'harsh', /ja:rn/ 'thread', /warp/ 'warp'.

(C) from Old French ar

/argeme̍nt/ 'argument', /barbe̍r/ 'barber', /ba:r/ 'bar', /dźa:r/ 'jar', /ka:r/ 'car', /kwart/ 'quart', /kwarte̍r/ 'quarter', /la:rd/ lard', /park/ 'park', /parleme̍nt/ 'parliament', /parsl/ 'parcel', /rewa:rd/ 'reward', /tśa:rdź/ 'charge', /wardro:b/ 'wardrobe', /warn/ 'warrant'.

(D) in words of doubtful origin

/klart/ 'slovenly woman', /klarte/ 'dirty', /mart/ '(auction) mart', /skarf/ 'scarf', /skart/ 'scratch' (by metathesis from Early ME scrat, of doubtful etymology).

4.1.7 But ar followed by a consonant gives Glenoe /e̥r/.

(A) from Anglian ear, ar(49)

/e̥rm/ 'arm', /e̥rn/ 'earn', /e̥rs/ 'arse', /he̥rm/ 'harm', /je̥rd/ 'yard', /ke̥rt/ 'cart', /śe̥rp/ 'sharp', /te̥rt/ 'sour'.

(B) from Old French ar

/e̥rme/ 'army', /ge̥rd/ 'guard', /ge̥rdn/ 'garden', /ge̥rdne̍r/ 'gardener', /ge̥rte̍r/ 'garter', /ke̥rd/ 'card', /pe̥rt(e)/ 'part(y)'.

(C) in words of doubtful origin

/de̥rn/ 'darn'.

4.1.8 ME -al(-)

(A) from Anglian -al(-) gives l. /o̥:(l)/, 2. /a:/, 3. /e̍ül/

1. /bo̥:ld/ 'bald', /fo̥:/ 'fall', /go̥:l/ 'gall', /ho̥:l/ 'hall', /ko̥:/ 'call', /me̍ˈsko̥:/ 'to abuse', /o̥: & a:l/ 'all', /to̥:k/ 'talk', /to̥:l/ 'tall', /wo̥:k/ 'walk'. The forms with /l/ are probably from Larne.

2. /ha:d/ sb. 'hold' (cp. phrase /he: jeˈ ne: ˈha:d e̍n je̍r ˈha:n?/), /ha:f/ 'half', /ka:v/ 'calf', /pa:m/ 'palm (tree)', /sa:t/ 'salt', /sa:v/ 'salve'. Also the surnames: /ga:t/ 'Gault', /me̍ka:me̍nt/ 'McCalmont'.

3. /be̍ül/ 'bold', /e̍ül/ 'old', /he̍ül/ vb. 'hold', sb. 'hold' (e.g. phrase /ti̥k de̍ he̍ül o e̍t/ 'take hold of it'), /ke̍ül/ 'cold', /se̍ül/ 'sold', /te̍ül & te̥lt/ 'told'.

N.B.: A diphthongal pronunciation was probably widespread in such words during Elizabethan times and the early 17th century; cp. the southern Irish pronunciation /be̍uld/, /e̍uld/ etc., also for the North of England,(50) /bauld/, /auld/ etc., and for Scotland, Campbeltown (Kintyre):(51) howld, owld, sowld; Black Isle and Easter Ross:(52) bowld, cowld, sowld; Caithness:(53) bowld, where ow represents /ʌu/.

Note the vowels in /he:pne/ 'halfpenny', /he:pe̍rθ/ 'halfpennyworth', /fo:ld/ 'fold'.

(B) from Scandinavian -al- gives Glenoe /al/.

/skalp/ 'scalp'.

(C) from Old French -al- gives /a:/.

/sa:m/ 'psalm', /ska:d/ 'scald, tea'.

4.1.9 ME medial a + r + vowel

(A) from Anglian ea gives /a/.

/are̍/ 'arrow', /hare̍/ 'harrow', /spare̍/ 'sparrow'.

But note the vowels in /är/ are (OE Northumbrian type aron), /bo̥re̍/ 'wheel-barrow', /ne̥re̍/ 'narrow'.

(B) from Old French a gives /a/ and /e̥/.

1. /ba:rl/ (monosyllabic): 'barrel', /kare & ke̥re/ 'carry', /kare̍t/ 'carrot', /kware/ 'quarry', /pareś/ 'parish'.

2. /me̥re/ 'marry'.

4.1.10 ME e

(A) from Anglian e, eo and e (the i-mutation of ae) gives 1. Glenoe /e̥/ but 2. mostly /a/ after w.(54)

1. /be̥:d/ 'bed', /be̥le/ 'belly', /be̥lez/ 'bellows', /e̥fte̍r/ 'after' (from OE efter, variant of æfter, perhaps due to Scandinavian influence), /fe̥:l/ 'to fell', /me̍se̥:l/ 'myself', /je̥lp/ 'yelp', /le̥de̍r/ 'leather', /ne̥:b/ 'beak', /ste̥:p/ 'step', /θre̥:ś/ 'thresh, thrash'.

2. /hwalp/ 'whelp; term of abuse', /hwaml/ 'overturn' (from OE hwelman, ME whelmen, with metathesis of -lm-),(55) /ra:n/ 'wren', /rasl/ 'wrestle' (from OE *wráestlian, with shortening and mutation), /swa:l/ 'to swell', /twa:l/ 'twelve', /twalθ/ 'twelfth', /wa:b/ 'web', /wade̍r/ 'weather', /wa:dn/ 'wedding', /wa:dź/ 'wedge', /wa:l/ sb. 'well', /wa:l-karse̍z/ 'water-cress', /wa:t/ adj. 'wet' (late ME wet, wett, p.p. of vb. wéten, OE wáetan, with shortening).

(B) from Scandinavian e in closed syllables gives Glenoe /e̥/.

/ge̥ld/ 'geld' (without lengthening), /ske̥le/ 'squint' (from ON skjelga). Also before /g/ in /e̥:g/ 'egg', /kle̥:g/ 'horse-fly', /le̥:g(nz)/ leg(gings)'.

(C) from Old French e in closed syllables and open unaccented syllables gives Glenoe /e̥/.

/de̥pje̍te/ 'deputy', /de̥:t/ 'debt', /dźe̥le̍s/ 'jealous', /le̥te̍s/ 'lettuce', /me̥dl/ 'meddle'; 'medal', /me̥:s/ 'mess', /ne̥fje/ 'nephew', /re̥gje̍le̍r/ 'regular', /re̥nde̍r/ 'to melt fat', /tre̥sl & θresl/ 'trestle'.

(D) in words of obscure origin we find Glenoe /e̥/.

/dźe̥lge̍r/ 'large needle', /ke̥lp/ 'sea-weed ash' (a source of iodine), /ke̥:p/ 'to prevent cattle from straying', e.g. up a side road, /me̥:l/ vb. & sb. '(to hit with) a large mallet', /ske̥le̍t/ 'skillet', /ske̥lf/ 'wood-splinter', /ske̥lp/ 'smack'.

4.1.11 Raising of ME e to i before nasals gives Glenoe /ä/, which represents a subsequent lowering and retraction.

(A) from Anglian e and e (the i-mutation of æ)

/än̥le̍n/ 'England', /än̥li̥ś/ 'English', /bänś/ 'bench', /hänź/ 'hinge', /ränś/ sb. 'wrench', /strän̥/ 'string'.

Note 1: /gärn/ 'to complain' etc., from OE grennian (to grin)

> grin- > girn-, raising e to i before the nasal n and with metathesis.

Note 2: /e̥/ remains in /be̥:n/ 'bend', /e̥:n/ 'end', /le̥mpe̍t/ 'limpet' (from OE lempedu), /se̥:n/ 'send', /spe̥:n/ 'spend', /ste̥:m/ 'stem', /we̥nt/ pret. & p.p. 'went'.

(B) from Scandinavian e

/dän̥/ 'beat' (cp. phrase /he we̍z goe̍n li̥k dän̥ dvst/ or /goe̍n e̍ dän̥e̍r/, i.e. very quickly), /hän̥/ 'hang', /wän̥/ 'wing'.

(C) from Old French e

/änźe̍n/ 'engine', /śame/ 'chemise', /träml/ 'tremble', /tśämle/ 'chimney'. But /e̥/ remains in /éte̥mp(t)/ 'attempt', /me̥:mre/ 'memory', /me̥:n/ 'mend', /re̥nt/ 'rent', /ve̥ntśe̍r/ 'venture'.

4.1.12 ME e raised to i before other consonants gives Glenoe /ä/.

(A) from OE e, é, eo, éo

/bäzm/ 'besom', /bläs/ 'bless', /de̍gäde̍r/ 'together', /jäste̍(r)de/ 'yesterday', /näkst/ 'next'.

(B) from Scandinavian e

/kätl̩e̍n/ 'kitten' (? from ON ketlinger).

(C) from Old French e

/fätś/ 'vetch'.

4.1.13 ME e + r + vowel gives Glenoe /e̥ /.

(A) from OE sources (e, Anglian é from West Saxon ǣ1,Anglian áe from West Saxon ǣ2).

/be̥re/ 'berry', /e̥rn/ 'errand', /he̥rn/ 'herring'.

(B) from Scandinavian e

/fe̥re/ 'ferry', (Old West Scandinavian ferja, or possibly OE *ferie).

(C) from Old French e, i

/me̥rekl/ 'miracle', ( from e from i), /pe̥reś/ 'perish', /te̥ree̍r/ 'terrier', /ve̥re/ 'very'.

4.1.14 ME er + consonant

(A) from OE er, eor

1. gives Glenoe /ar/.

/bark/ vb. 'bark', /ba:rm/ 'barm', /ba:rmbre̥:k/ 'a large currant bun', /ba:rn/ 'barn', /dark(e̍n)/ 'dark(en)', /da:rle̍n/ 'darling', /fa:r, farde̍r, farde̍st/ 'far', etc., /fardn/ 'farthing', /hart/ 'heart', /ka:rv/ 'carve', /sark/ 'chemise', /sta:r/ 'star', /ta:r/ 'tar'.

2. But note these with Glenoe /e̥r/:

/he̥rbe̍r/ 'harbour', /he̥rve̍st/ 'harvest', /je̥:rd/ 'yard', /le̥:rn/ 'learn, teach', /ste̥:rv/ 'starve (with hunger or cold)'.

(B) from Anglian er (West Saxon ear) gives Glenoe /ar/.

/mark/ 'mark', /spark/ 'spark', /stark/ 'stark'.

(C) from Scandinavian er gives Glenoe /ar/.

/a:r/ 'a scar', (Old West Scandinavian err, ørr), /ska:r/ 'scare' (ME skerre, ON skirra, formed on skjarr from the base *skerro-).

(D) from Old French er gives mostly /e̥r/, occasionally /ar/.(56)

1. /de̍ze̥:rv/ 'deserve', /dźe̥:rme̍n/ 'German', /fe̥rm(e̍r)/ 'farm(er)', /ke̍nse̥:rn/ 'concern', /me̥rse/ 'mercy', /ne̥:rv/ 'nerve', /pe̥rse̍n/ 'person', /se̥rme̍n/ 'sermon', /se̥rpe̍nt/ 'serpent', /se̥rte̍n(t)/ 'certain', /se̥rtś/ 'search', /se̥:rv(e̍nt)/ 'serve (servant)', /ve̥:rdź/ 'verge', /ve̥rs/ 'verse'.

Note: /ge̥:nse/ 'jersey' (from Guernsey with loss of /r/).

2. /klark/ 'clerk', /pardn/ 'pardon', /parsle/ 'parsley', /parsn/ 'parson', /wa:r/ 'war'.

4.1.15 ME i

In Glenoe, the ME i (from older i, y and í, ý through shortening) normally appears as the very open and somewhat centred /ä/-sound described in section 3.3.2, but occasionally as a tense (i) before velars and after /w/, although in the latter case the development to /v/ is apparently the normal one (cp. /u/ in similar positions in Northern English dialects).(57)

(A) from OE i

1. gives Glenoe /ä/.

/bän/ 'bin', /bäts/ 'bitch', /brän̥/ 'bring', /fän̥e̍r/ 'finger', /fäś/ 'fish', /jät/ 'yet', /krän̥kl/ 'to wrinkle' (ultimately from OE crincan 'to wrinkle', cp. /krän̥kle pe:pe̍r/ 'crepe paper'), /kräsp/ 'crisp', /läd/ 'lid', /läp/ 'lip', /läθ/ 'section of an orange' (OE lith, 'a limb'), /mädl̩e̍n/ 'mediocre', /mäks/ 'mix', /mäst/ 'mist', /nät/ 'nit, louse's egg', /pätśfo̥rk/ 'pitch-fork', /sän̥k/ 'sink', /śäft/ vb. 'move (trans), move at speed (intrans.)'; sb. 'undergarment', /täk/ 'an insect', /θäk/ 'thick'; 'stupid'; 'friendly', /tśälde̍r/ 'children' (rare, usually weans /we:nz/).

2. gives Glenoe /i/.

/kin̥ks/ 'hysterical fit of laughing'; cp. phrase: 'in keenks', /li:v/ 'live', /swil/ 'swivel', /swim/ 'swim', /wide̍(wvme̍n)/ 'widow', /wide̍ma:n/ 'widower', /wi:znd/ 'wizened'. Also in these words of uncertain origin: /hwif/ 'whiff, unpleasant odour' (probably onomatopoeic), /kwil/ 'quill', /kwilro̥:dz/ 'reeds'.

3. gives Glenoe /v/.

/hwvsl/ 'whistle', /hwvspe̍r/ 'whisper', /twvnz/ 'twins', /twvst/ 'twist', /wvl/ 'will', /wvn/ 'to wind'; 'to winnow', /wvnlstre: & -stro:/ windlestraw', /wvnro̥:/ 'windrow', /wvnte̍r/ 'winter', /wvt/ 'wit', /wvtś/ 'witch'.

Also in /hwvtl/ vb. 'whittle, pare'; sb. 'whitlow', ? /hwvtre̍t/ 'weasel', where ME i is from OE i by shortening.

Note 1: /twvnte/ 'twenty' (probably e was first raised to i before the nasal n, and then *twin- became /twvn-/ as above).

Note 2: OE risc gives Glenoe /ra:ś/ sb. 'rush'.

(B) from Scandinavian i

1. gives Glenoe /ä/.

/äl/ 'ill', /äl-tvn̥d/ 'abusive', /bän̥/ 'heap', /hät/ 'hit', /käst/ 'chest, box', /kläp/ 'to clip', /skäl/ 'skill', /skäte̍r/ 'diarrhoea'; a term of abuse, /skätre/ 'insignificant', /smäde/ 'smithy', /täl/ 'till'; 'slightly ajar' (of a door).

2. gives Glenoe /v/ after w.

/swvde̍r/ 'hesitate', /wvnde̍(sol)/ 'window(-sill)'.

(C) from Old French i

1. gives Glenoe /ä/.

/ägne̍re̍nz/ 'ignorance, uncouthness', /ämpede̍nt/ 'impudent', /de̍läve̍r/ 'deliver', /fäni̹ś/ 'finish', /läme̍t/ 'limit', /mätś/ 'play truant', /mäkstśe̍r/ 'mixture', /päste̍n/ 'piston', /räve̍t/ 'rivet', /sän̥l/ 'single', /säze̍rz/ 'scissors', /täśe/ 'tissue'.

2. gives Glenoe /i/.

/brik/ 'brick', /pe̍rtikle̍r/ 'particular', /pite(fe̍)/ 'pity (pitiful)', also possibly /dźig/ 'jig' (? from Old French gigue).(58) These may represent direct Scottish borrowings from French, whereas the first series with /ä/ are adaptations of Larne.

Note: Glenoe /e̥/: /de̥ne̍r/ 'dinner', /kwe̥:t & kwa:t/ 'quit, stop'.

(D) from OE y gives Glenoe /ä/.

/bäld/ 'build' (rare, usually /bäg/), /bärse/ 'bristling' (of hair), /bäzne̍z/ 'business', /dädl/ 'deceive', /däp/ 'dip'; 'to fry in lard', /däze/ 'dizzy', /häl/ 'hill', /häps/ 'buttocks', /käl/ 'kiln', /käs/ 'kiss', /kätśe̍n/ 'kitchen'; 'a savoury addition to a meal', /kräpl/ 'cripple', /läsn/ 'listen', /mädź/ 'midge', /nät/ 'knit', /päle̍/ 'pillow', /sän/ 'sin', /θän/ 'thin'.

But note /dvl/ 'dull' (from OE *dylle, ME dulle).

(E) from Scandinavian y gives Glenoe /ä/.

/bäg/ 'to build', /bräg/ 'bridge', /flät/ 'to move one's abode', /läft/ 'lift'; 'remove a corpse for funeral', /mädn/ 'manure heap', /räft/ 'belch', /räg/ 'ridge', /räg e̍n fvr/ (literally 'ridge and furrow') 'purl and plain', /säste̍r/ 'sister'. But note /ke̥nl/ 'to kindle' (ON kynda), /ke̥nl̩e̍n/ 'firewood', /re̥:d/ 'rid' (ON ryðja), cp. also /re̥:d vp/ 'tidy up'.

(F) from OE í through shortening gives Glenoe /ä/.

/fäft/ 'fifth', /fäfte/ 'fifty', /länsid/ 'linseed', /stäf/ 'stiff'; 'unfriendly'.

But note /wvme̍n/ 'woman', /wime̍n/ 'women'.

(G) from OE ý through shortening gives Glenoe /ä/.

/fälθe/ 'filthy', /lätl/ 'little' (rare; usually /wi:/ 'wee'), /tśäke̍n/ 'chicken', /θäml/ 'thimble', /wäś/ 'wish'.

4.1.16 Short i /ä/ in words of obscure origin

/dźäbl/ 'spill', /fäsl/ 'rustle' (paper, etc.), /härpl/ 'to limp', /härsl/ 'a cough', /jäte̍r/ 'complain ceaselessly', /länt/ 'flax', /mäm/ 'demure, prim', /mämp/ 'to act with affectation', /smät/ 'infect with disease' (probably a back-formation on p.p. smitten), /smätl/ 'infectious', /snäb/ 'window-catch', /snäk/ 'door-latch', /täg/ 'a light blow'; 'a children's game', /trätl/ 'to walk with a little trot'.

4.1.17 ME i from OE i + nd and + mb

1. generally gives Glenoe /ä/.

/blän/ 'blind', /e̍hän(t)/ 'behind', /fän/ 'find'.

2. lengthening and diphthongisation have given Glenoe /e̍i/.

/be̍in/ 'bind', /gre̍in/ 'grind', /we̍in & wvn/ vb. 'wind'.

Note in /wvn/ (sb. 'wind') the short i has become /v/ following w (see ME i 4.1.15 (A) 3 above).

These /e̍i/ pronunciations may have been borrowed from Larne, where they are normal (although Larne usually has the final d).

4.1.18 ME -ir-

(A) from OE ir

1. gives Glenoe /ä/.

/bärtś/ 'birch (tree)', /stäre̍p/ (from OE stigráp), /stärk/ 'stirk, young bullock or heifer'.

2. gives Glenoe /v / (probably by way of yr to ur).

/bvrd/ 'bird', /tśvrtś/ 'church', /θvrd/ 'third', /θvrte/ 'thirty'.

(B) from OE yr

1. gives Glenoe /ä/.

/bärθ/ 'birth', /gärdl/ 'girdle'.

2. gives Glenoe /v/.

/bvrdn/ 'burden', /fvrst/ 'first', /hvrdl/ 'hurdle', /stvr/ vb. 'stir'; sb. 'fun', /stvre̍n/ 'mischievous', /śvrt/ 'shirt', /tśvrn/ 'churn', /θvrst/ 'thirst', /wvrk/ 'work', /wvrm/ 'worm', /wvrs(t)/ 'worse (worst)', /wvre/ 'worry'.

These forms suggest the development of yr to ur to /vr/.

Note Glenoe /e̥/ in /ke̥rnl/ 'kernel', /ge̥rl/ 'girl' (from OE *gyrel, according to Skeat), which are probably borrowings from Larne.

4.1.19 ME iht generally gives Glenoe /äxt/, in a general levelling process.

(A) from OE iht

/säxt/ 'sight'.

(B) from Late OE iht (from eht, e the smoothing of earlier eo)

/bräxt/ 'bright', /räxt/ 'right'.

But note /fe̥xt/ 'fight'.

(C) from Anglian iht (earlier éht)

/läxt(ne̍n)/ 'light(ning)', /läxt/ adj. 'light'.

(D) from OE iht (earlier íht)

/läxt/ 'to illuminate, to alight', /täxt/ 'tight' (from ME thight, OE thíht).

(E) from OE yht

/fläxt/ 'flight', /fräxt(n)/ 'fright(en)'.

(F) from Anglian eht, éht (West Saxon ieht, íeht)

/näxt/ 'night', /fo:rtnäxt/ 'fortnight', /mäxt/ vb. 'might'. But note /hixt/ 'height' (cp. /hix/ 'high').

Note also /säx/ 'sigh' (probably a back-formation on ME sihte, pret. of siche, from OE sícan).

4.1.20 ME o usually gives Glenoe /o̥(:)/, but /a(:)/ in contact with labials.

(A) from OE

1. /bo̥:de/ 'body' (but /bvde/ 'person', and /be̍de & bvde/ in compounds: /ˈsvmbe̍ˌde/ 'somebody', /ˈne:be̍ˌde/ 'nobody', /̍o̥neˌbvde/ 'anybody'), /bo̥:re̍/ vb. 'borrow', /bro̥:θ/ 'broth', /do̥:ke̍n/ 'dock plant', /fo̥:ks/ 'fox', /fro̥:st/ 'frost', /jo̥:k/ 'yoke', /jo̥:n/ & (usually) /do̥:n/ 'yon', /jo̥nde̍r/ & (usually) /do̥:ne̍r/ 'yonder', /klo̥:ke̍n/ 'broody (of a hen)', /klo̥:d/ 'clod'; 'to throw', /lo̥:k/ 'a large quantity or number', /sno̥:te̍r/ 'nose mucus'; term of abuse, /tro̥:x/ 'trough'.

2. /a:f/ 'off', /a:pn/ 'open', /ate̍rka:p/ term of abuse (originally meant 'spider', from OE attorcoppa), /dra:p/ 'drop', /kra:p/ sb. 'crop', vb. 'cut', /kra:pn/ 'crop, craw of fowl', /sa:b/ 'sob', /śa:p/ 'shop', /sta:p/ 'stop', /ta:p/ 'top', /ta:pe/ 'unkempt person', /ta:pe̍n/ 'forelock of hair'; cf. also the names /ra:b(e̍rt)/ 'Rob(ert)', /ta:m/ 'Tom'.

Note 1: /v/ occurs in /dvg/ 'dog', /mvne/ 'many' (OE mo̜niʒ, see Survey of English Dialects); cp. /o̥ne/ 'any' (from Northern Middle English ony, see Survey of English Dialects).

Note 2: divergent developments occur in /ko̥:le/ 'colly, soot' and /ko:le/ 'collie (dog)', both from OE *coliʒ (see Survey of English Dialects).

(B) from early shortening of OE ō1 (tense)

1. gives Glenoe /o̥/.

/blo̥:sm/ 'blossom', /fo̥:de̍r/ 'fodder', /go̥:zle̍n/ 'gosling', /o̥:kste̍r/ 'armpit', /o̍:kste̍(r)ko̥:g/ 'to support under the armpits'.

2. gives Glenoe /a/.

/sa:ft/ 'soft'.

(C) from Scandinavian o

1. gives Glenoe /o̥/: /ro̥:tn/ 'rotten', /slo̥:ke̍n/ 'quench (fire, thirst)', from ON slokna.

2. gives Glenoe /a/: /la:ft/ 'loft, upper room'.

(D) from Old French o

1. gives Glenoe /o̥/.

/bo̥:tl/ 'bottle (glass container)', /fro̥:k/ 'frock', /ko̥:tedź/ 'cottage', /mo̥:de̍rn/ 'modern', /o̥:renź/ 'orange', /pro̥:mes/ 'promise', /ro̥:be̍n/ 'robin', /ro̥:k/ 'rock'.

2. gives Glenoe /a/ sometimes after labials.

/ba:tl/ 'bottle', i.e. 'bundle (of hay etc.)' (from Old French botel, diminutive of botte), /pa:retś/ 'porridge' (ultimately from French potage). These words must have been borrowed before the shift of o to a in contact with labials, illustrated in the OE and Scandinavian words above.

3. gives /v/ in two words before labials.

/rvb/ 'rob', /stvmek/ 'stomach'.

4. gives Glenoe /o:/.

/bo:ne/ 'bonny', /po:le̍s/ 'police', /ˈpo:st ˌma:n/ 'postman'

(E) Words of doubtful origin

1. with Glenoe /o̥/

/bo̥:s/ 'boss (master; hassock)', /be̍ˈĺjo̥:r/ 'bellow', /fo̥:g/ 'mist'; 'moss'; 'eat greedily', /go̥:rb/ 'a glutton', /klo̥:k/ 'beetle', /ko̥:g/ 'to copy (work, from a fellow schoolboy)', /ko̥lf/ 'eat greedily' (trans.), /pro̥:g/ 'to hunt around (esp. for food)', /pro̥:dl/ 'poke about', /ro̥:zn/ 'resin'.

2. with Glenoe /a/ for /o̥/ before labials

/ha:b/ 'hob', /ha:p/ 'hop', /na:b/ 'knob' (cp. Low German knobbe), /pra:p/ 'prop', /sla:be̍r/ 'slobber', /θrapl/ 'throat, thropple', (? from OE throtbolla: 'gullet, windpipe').(59)

4.1.21 ME -ol(-) final and followed by a consonant

(A) from OE -ol(-)

1. gives Glenoe /e̍ü(l)/.

/be̍ül/ 'bowl', /be̍üste̍r/ 'bolster', /be̍ült/ 'bolt', /ke̍ült/ 'colt' (usually /kläb/), /me̍ül/ 'mould, earth', /ne̍ü/' 'knoll'.

2. gives Glenoe /o:(l)/.

/fok/ 'folk' (note shortening: cp. No. 14 - 3.3.4 above), /go:ld & gü̥ld (obsolete)/ 'gold', /jo:k/ 'yolk', /to:l/ 'toll (a bell)'.

Note here /pe̍ül/ 'pole' (from OE pál).

(B) from Old French -ol(-)

1. gives Glenoe /e̍ü(l)/: /re̍ül/ 'roll', /re̍üle̍r/ 'roller'.

2. gives Glenoe /o:(l)/: /ke̍ntro:l/ 'control', /so:dźe̍r/ 'soldier'.

(C) in words of obscure origin

1. gives Glenoe /e̍ü/: /pe̍ü/ 'top of the head' (from ME polle).

2. gives /o:/: /ho:k/ 'to hollow out by digging' (Northern Middle English holken). With this diphthong /e̍ü/ cf. ME -al(-) 4.1.8 (A) 3 above. The /o:/ forms and the restored /l/ are probably from Larne.

4.1.22 ME -or- followed by a consonant

In words both from OE and Old French sources, there is in Glenoe a clear division between those with /o̥:r/ and those with /o:r/. The same distinction is made in Larne, although Glenoe often has /o:r/ for Larne /o̥:r/. D. Jones(60) observes a similar dichotomy in Scottish, Western and North-Eastern English and in Irish speech where R.P. has had a levelling under /o̥:/ since the beginning of the 19th century.(61)

(A) from OE -or-

1. gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/de̍mo̥:re̍/ 'to-morrow', /fo̥:rk/ 'fork', /ho̥:rs/ 'horse', /mo̥:rte̍r/ 'mortar', /no̥:rθ/ 'north', /fo̥:re̍t/ 'forward', /so̥:re̍/ 'sorrow', /sto̥:rm/ 'storm'.

Note here /so̥:re/ 'sorry' (from OE sárig, ME sóry).

2. gives Glenoe /o:/.

/bo:rd/ 'board', /bo:rn/ 'born', /e̍fo:rd/ 'afford', /fo:rd/ 'ford', /fo:rtnäxt/ 'fortnight', /ho:rn/ 'horn', /ko:rn/ 'corn', /mo:rn(e̍n)/ 'morning', /śo:rt/ 'short', /swo:rn/ 'sworn', /θo:rn/ 'thorn', /wo:rn/ 'worn'.

Note here /lo:rd/ 'lord' (from OE hláford).

(B) from Old French -or- (accented)

1. gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/dźo̥:rdź/ 'George' (but /dźo:rde/), /fo̥:rm/ 'form', /sko̥:rn/ 'scorn', /sko̥:rtś/ 'scorch' & (with metathesis), /skro̥:tś/ 'shrivel, blast (of vegetation)', /o̥:rde̍r/ 'order', /o̥:rge̍n/ 'organ'.

2. gives Glenoe /o:/.

/de̍vo:rs/ 'divorce', /fo:rdź/ 'forge', /fo:rs/ 'force', /ko:rd/ 'cord', /ko:rne̍r/ 'corner', /ko:rt/ (rare, usually /kü̥rt/) 'court', /po:rk/ 'pork', /po:rtś/ 'porch', /po:rte̍r/ 'porter', /repo:rt/ 'report', /spo:rt/ 'sport', /so:rs/ 'source', /so:rt/ 'sort', /se̍po:rt/ 'support', /e̍ko:rdn/(te)/ 'according (to)'.

3. (unaccented) gives /o̥:/: /fo̥:re̍n/ 'foreign', /fo̥:rtśe̍n/ 'fortune', etc.

4.1.23 ME u generally gives Glenoe 1. /v/, but 2. occasionally /ä/ (perhaps by way of u to y to i).(62)

(A) from OE

1. /bvle̍k/ 'bullock', /bvte̍r/ 'butter', /dvm(e)/ 'dumb (person)', /grvnt/ 'grunt', /gvts/ 'guts', /hvn̥e̍r/ 'hunger', /jvn̥/ 'young', /kvp/ 'cup', /kvbe̍rt/ 'cupboard', /plvk/ 'to pluck', /spvnź/ 'sponge', /svm/ 'some', /svmθe̍n/ 'something', /svn(de)/ 'sun (Sunday)', /tvml/ 'tumble', /tvn̥/ 'tongue', /θvne̍r/ 'thunder', /vp/ 'up'.

2. /dän/ adj. 'dun', /nät/ 'nut', /säme̍r/ 'summer', /täp/ 'tup, ram' (from ME tuppe, origin doubtful).

(B) from Scandinavian u gives Glenoe /v/.

/gvst/ 'gust', /lvg/ 'ear', /lvg/ 'to pull', /lvgetś/ 'luggage', /mvk/ 'dirt', /mvn/ & (unemphatic) /me̍n/ 'must', /mvne/ 'must not', /rvg/ 'to pull hair' (cp. Swedish dialect lugga, here with l-r interchange, and cp. /lvg/ above).

(C) from Old French u, ou gives Glenoe /v/.

/bvke̍t/ 'bucket', /dźvdź/ 'judge', /dźvstes/ 'justice', /frvnt/ 'front', /gvte̍r(z)/ 'gutter (mud)', /hvt/ 'hut', /hvtś/ 'hutch', /krvst/ 'crust', /kvle̍r/ 'colour', /kvmpne̍/ 'company', /kvntre/ 'country', /kvpl/ 'couple', /kvste̍(r)d/ 'custard', /kvzn/ 'cousin', /kvve̍r/ 'cover', /mvne/ 'money', /mvsl/ 'muscle', /mvʔn/ 'mutton', /nvme̍r/ 'number', /pvnś/ 'punch', /pvp/ 'pup', /pvś/ 'push', /krvś/ 'crush', /svdnt(le)/ 'sudden(ly)', /svpe̍r/ 'supper', /vn̥kl/ 'uncle', /trvbl/ 'trouble', /tvtś/ 'touch'.

Note 1: /stäbl/ 'stubble' (from Old French stuble, cp. ME u above).

Note 2: /dźü̥st & dźï̥st/ 'just' (adv.), /fü̥ste & fü̥ste̍d/ 'fusty' (with rounded short /ü̥/).

Note 3: /ko̥mfe̍rt/ 'comfort', /ko̥nste̍bl/ 'constable'. These last two are probably spelling pronunciations.

(D) words of obscure origin with /v/ in Glenoe

/bvm/ 'buzz, hum'; 'brag', /bvm-bi:/ 'bumble-bee', /gvle/ 'large knife', /dvne̍r/ 'a heavy blow', /fjvge/ 'left-handed, clumsy' (from *fljvg-), /gvnś/ 'small stocky person', /hvn̥ke̍rz/ 'haunches' (phrase /o̥nje̍r hvnke̍rz/ 'squatting'), /krvdz/ 'curds', /krvldź/ 'to crouch (esp. near the fire)', /spvlpn/ 'rascal', /tśvle̍rz/ 'dewlap'; 'double chin'.

4.1.24 OE u followed by -nd

This u has often remained short in Glenoe, developing into unrounded /v/.

1. /fvn/ 'found', /grvn/ 'ground', (cf. /ga:ts grvn/ 'Gault's Ground' (the name of a local farm), /pvn/ 'pound' (money), /wvne̍r/ 'wonder'.

The same vowel appears in /bvnl/ 'bundle' (from ME bundel, OE byndel).

2. Diphthongisation of a lengthened u also appears in a few words, probably borrowed from Larne.

/be̍ün/ 'compelled', /he̍ün/ 'hound'; term of abuse, /pe̍ün/ 'pound (weight)'.

Note 1: The vowel in /rü̥n/ 'round' (from Old French rund) is short but still rounded. This may be a case of secondary shortening.

Note 2: The vowels in /mvnt/ sb. 'mount' (cf. the local place-name /mvnt häl/ 'Mount Hill', /mvnʔn/ 'mountain', /mvnʔne/ adj. 'mountainous' etc., point to a ME short u.

(A) OE u followed by -r gives Glenoe /v/.

/dvrs(ne)/ 'durst (not)', /fvre̍/ 'furrow' (but /fvr/ in the /räg e̍n fvr/ 'purl and plain'), /kvrs/ 'curse', /mvrde̍r/ 'murder', /mvrn/ 'mourn, complain', /pvrs/ 'purse', /tvrf/ 'turf, peat', /wvrd/ 'word', /wvrθ/ 'worth'.

(B) Old French ur, our generally give Glenoe /v/.

/dźvrne/ 'journey', /fvr/ 'fur', /fvrneś/ 'furnish', /hvrt/ 'hurt', /kvrʔn/ 'curtain', /nvrs/ 'nurse', but give short rounded /ü̥/ in /däskü̥rs/ 'discourse', /kü̥rs/ 'course', /kü̥rt/ sb. & vb. 'court'.

4.1.25 ME -ul- followed by a consonant

(A) from OE -ul(-)

This group seems to have developed as follows: ul - ú - /ü:/ (final) + /ü̥/ (medial) with loss of l.

1. /fü:/'full', /pü:/'pull'.

But note /wvl/ 'wool', which has probably come in from Larne, as have also /fvl/ 'full', /pvl/ 'pull' alongside the forms above.

2. /kü̥te̍r/ 'coulter', /śü̥de̍r/ 'shoulder'.

(B) from Scandinavian -ul(-) gives Glenoe /vl/: /bvlk(e)/ 'bulk(y)', /skvl/ 'skull'.

Note: ME bule, bole 'bull', from Old West Scandinavian boli (cp. Old Danish bul) gives Glenoe /bäl/ with fronting and unrounding: u to y to i.(63)

(C) from Old French -oul- gives Glenoe /vl/: /pvle̍t/ 'pullet', (also /e̥rek/ from Scots Gaelic eireag).

Note the following: /svde̍r/ 'solder' (from ME sowder, Old French soudure, from *sold-); /po:ltre/ 'poultry', /pe̍ültes/ 'poultice' (earliest form is the plural: pultises).(64)

Foreword | Introduction | Phonetics | Vowels | Long Vowels | Consonants | Conclusion | Notes