The Phonology of an East Antrim Dialect

Robert J. Gregg

4.2 The Long Vowels

4.2.1 ME á

Long á in ME from all sources has generally developed into Glenoe /e:/ (sporadically /ee̍/ or /ie̍/ as described above, No. 10, 3.3.2), whether from original long á, or á lengthened in open syllables. The process was probably: á to ǽ to /e̥:/ to /e:/.(65) Beside or instead of this /e:/, the long /o:/-sound is found in certain words influenced by, or borrowed from, Larne.

4.2.2 ME á

(A) from OE á, medial or final

1. gives Glenoe /e:/.

/be:n/ 'bone', /bre:d/ 'broad', /e̍le:n/ 'alone', /he:l/ 'whole', /he:m/ 'home', /kle:θ/ 'cloth', /kle:z/ 'clothes' (from OE cláðes), /ne:n/ 'none', /re:p/ 'rope', /se:/ 'so', /ste:n/ 'stone', /se:p/ 'soap', /te:/ 'toe'.

Note 1: Observe the development of the vowel in /jän/ 'one', /jänst/ 'once', probably through /e:/ to /ee̍/ to /ie̍/ to /ji̥/ to /jä/.

Note 2: The vowel /e:/ appears in /ne:be̍de/ 'nobody', but it has been raised and shortened in /ni̥θe̍n/ 'nothing' (cf. No. 1, 3.3.2).

Note 3: Glenoe /me:st/ 'most' from ME & OE mást (rather than máest), perhaps due to the influence of the vowel in mára 'more', see 4.2.3 below, 'ME ár, from OE ár & ar by lengthening in open syllables'.

Note 4: OE hát 'hot' gives Glenoe /he̥:t/ with the open vowel /e̥/ instead of /e:/. The lengthening is probably secondary.

2. gives Glenoe /o:/.

/bo:t/ 'boat', /fo:m/ 'foam', /go:/ 'go', /go:t/ 'goat', /ho:le/ 'holy', /ho:n/ 'hone', /lo:d/ 'load', /lo:f/ 'loaf', /o:k/ 'oak', /o:θ/ 'oath', /ro:d/ 'road', /spo(:)k/ sb. 'spoke', /stro:k/ 'stroke'.

Note that /e:/ is never used in any of the words in this list, but the Larne /o:/ (or /o̥:/) may occasionally be heard in some of the words in list 1, e.g. /bo:n/, /bro̥:d/ etc.

3. gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/hwo̥:/ 'who', /hwo̥:r/ 'where' (from OE hwár), /two̥:/ 'two'. In these words the original á instead of being fronted to /e:/ has been rounded to /o̥:/ by the influence of the preceding w. Note: the same vowel appears in /no̥:/ 'no' (the negative particle), from OE ná.

(B) from Scandinavian á gives Glenoe /e:/.

/be:θ/ 'both', /ble:/ 'bluish-purple', /ble:be̍re/ 'bilberry', /bre:/ 'hill-slope, steep road', /e̍ge:n/ 'again(st)', /fe:/ 'from' (from Old West Scandinavian frá), /ke:l/ 'cabbage', /le:n/ 'loan', /le:x/ 'low', e.g. in the phrase /de̍ le:x fil/ 'the low field' (from ME láh, ON lágr).

Otherwise /lo:/ is normal for 'low'.

(C) from OE a, lengthened in open syllables, gives Glenoe /e:/.

/be:k/ 'bake', /fe̍rse:k/ 'forsake', /ge:p/ 'gape', /ge:t/ 'gate', /le:m(e̍te̍r)/ 'lame (person)', /le:t/ 'late', /me:d/ 'made', /spe:d/ 'spade', /śe:k/ 'shake', /te:n/ 'taken', in the phrase /te:n o̥n we/ 'intrigued by'; the p.p. of 'take' is normally /tvk/, as is the pret.

Note 1: /ke:m/ 'comb' from OE camb, with lengthened a before the group -mb.

Note 2: By an inorganic change /gin/, which represents the p.p. 'given', has normally come to serve also as pret. of 'give', although Larne /ge:v/ 'gave' also occurs.

Note 3: The vowel in /ble̥:d/ 'blade' remains at the open stage.

Note 4: The vowel a (lengthened) remains in /ma:k/ 'make', and occasionally in /ta:k/ 'take', although the latter is usually /ti̥k/, perhaps from the unstressed form.

(D) from Scandinavian a, lengthened in open syllables, gives Glenoe /e:/.

/de:zd/ 'dazed', /ke:k/ 'cake', /se:m/ 'same'.

Note that the form /we:l/ 'choose, pick out' probably goes back ultimately to ON val, with lengthened á. The form /we̥:l/ and its derivative /wa:l/ (cf. ME e above) also occur.

(E) from Old French a, lengthened in open syllables and followed by -st, gives Glenoe /e:/.

/be:ke̍n/ 'bacon', /ble:m/ 'blame', /e:bl/ 'able', /fe:s/ 'face', /ge:vl/ 'gable', /me:sn/ 'mason', /pe:pe̍r/ 'paper', /se:f/ 'safe', /ste:bl/ 'stable', /te:st/ 'taste'.

Note: /e̥/ and not /e:/ appears in /spe̥:n/ 'to wean' (? from Old French espanir), p.p. /spe̥nt/, and also in /pe̥:n/ 'pane (of glass)' from Old French pan. This is an arrested development, half-way between /a:/ and /e:/.

(F) Words of doubtful origin with present-day /e:/ possibly from á

/be:st/ 'to moisten (e.g. a roast) with gravy or fat'; 'to thrash', /dre:ke/ 'wet, misty', /hwe:l/ 'beat, thrash', /kre:k/ 'to ask persistently', /me:k/ 'a halfpenny', /pe:k/ 'to beat', /re:θ/ 'ghost, apparition', /ske:l/ 'scatter (dung)', /sle:te̍r/ 'wood-louse', /spe:lz/ 'small fragments', /ste:v/ 'sprain (wrist etc.)', /θe:vle̍s/ 'lackadaisical'.

Note: /e̥:/ appears instead of /e:/ in /he̥:mz/ 'hames', tips of horse-collar.

4.2.3 ME ár, from OE ár & ar by lengthening in open syllables

(A) from OE ár gives Glenoe /e̥:/.

/me̥:r/ 'more', /se̥:r/ 'sore', /re̥:r/ 'roar'.

Note: Forms from Larne with /o:/ also occur, esp. /so:r/, /ro:r/.

(B) from OE ar gives Glenoe /e̥:/.

/be̥:r/ 'bare', /he̥:r/ 'hare', /ke̥:r/ 'care', /spe̥:r/ 'spare', /ste̥:r/ 'stare'; 'starling', /śe̥:r/ 'share'.

This stabilisation at the /e̥/ stage is in contrast with Scots speech, which has generally developed /e:/ in such words: /be:r/ etc.(66) Wright gives /eə/, i.e. /e̥e̍/, for Aberdeen, Ayr and Inverness as well as Antrim.(67)

4.2.4 ME ē1 (i.e. /e:/)

This vowel generally develops into /i(:)/ in Glenoe no matter what its original source was. Early shortening gives Glenoe /e̥/; Northern Middle English final -éh and -éʒ give the Glenoe diphthong /e̍i/ with loss of the velars, whereas Northern Middle English final -éʒe generally gives Glenoe /i:/.

4.2.5 ME ē1

(A) from Anglian é (West Saxon ǣ1) gives Glenoe /i(:)/ (shortened except before voiced fricatives).

/bli:z/ 'blaze', /bri:d/ 'breathe', /did/ 'deed', /il/ 'eel', /i:vne̍n/ 'evening', /mil/ 'meal (repast)', /mide̍/ 'meadow', /nidl/ 'needle', /rid/ vb. 'read', /sid/ 'seed', /slip/ 'sleep', /spitś/ 'speech', /strit/ 'street'.

Note the vowel in /stipl/ 'staple', i.e. a U-shaped nail (from OE stapul, ME stapel) points to a by-form with ē1.

(B) from Anglian ǣ (the i-mutation of ó) gives Glenoe /i/.

/bitś/ 'beech', /blid/ 'bleed', /brid/ 'breed', /fid/ 'feed', /fil/ 'feel', /fit/ 'feet', /grin/ 'green', /grit/ 'greet', /hil/ 'heel', /kin/ 'keen', /kip/ 'keep', /kwin/ 'queen', /miʔn/ 'meeting', /spid/ 'speed', /swit/ 'sweet'.

Note the vowel in /tiθ/ 'tooth' (probably due to the influence of the plural, with which it is identical), and /dï̥z/ 'does', where the central vowel represents a halt in the fronting process.

(C) from Anglian éa, éo gives Glenoe /i(:)/.

/bi:/ 'be'; 'bee', /brist/ 'breast', /dil & dävl/ 'devil', /dip/ 'deep', /fri:/ 'free', /frin/ 'friend', /fri:z/ 'freeze', /lif/ 'lief, gladly' (obsolete), /ni:/ 'knee', /ril/ 'reel', /si:/ 'see', /sik/ 'sick' (from ME sék), /tri:/ 'tree', /θif/ 'thief', /θri:/ 'three', /wid/ 'weed'.

(D) from OE é in stressed monosyllables gives Glenoe /i:/.

/hi:/ 'he', /mi:/ 'me', /wi:/ 'we', /wil/ 'well'. The unstressed forms are /he/, /me/, /we/, but /we̍l/.

Note the unstressed /je/ 'you' (representing 'ye'), beside the stressed /jü:/.

(E) from Anglian é (West Saxon íe, the i-mutation of éa from au) gives Glenoe /i(:)/.

/beli:v/ 'believe', /drip/ 'drip', /nid/ 'need', /rik/ 'smoke', /sli:v/ 'sleeve', /stipl/ 'steeple', /śit/ 'sheet'.

(F) from OE e + ld gives Glenoe /i/.

/fil/ 'field', /jild/ 'yield', /śild/'shield'. The /d/ in the last two words is probably from Larne.

(G) from Scandinavian ío

/liste̍r/ 'pronged salmon spear' (from ON ljostr).

4.2.6 ME shortening before the raising of é to /i:/

(A) from Anglian é (West Saxon áe) gives Glenoe /e̥:/ (with subsequent lengthening).

/ke̥:p/ 'kept' (from ME kepte, OE cépte), /sle̥:p/ 'slept'.

Note 1: /ble̥de̍r/ 'bladder' may represent ON bláðra, rather than Anglian blédre.

Note 2: wet(t) p.p. of ME wéten 'to wet' with shortened é gives Glenoe /wa:t/, showing the change e to a after w. (See ME e 4.1.10 (A) 2 above.)

(B) from OE éa & éo

re̥:p/ pret. of /θrip/ 'threap' (from OE thréapian) 'to assert aggressively', /kre̥:p/ pret. of /krip/ 'creep' (from OE créopan).

(C) from OE áe

/e̥mpe/ 'empty' (from OE ǣm(e)tig).

4.2.7 Northern Middle English éh & éʒ final gives Glenoe /e̍i/.

/ne̍i/ 'nigh', /ne̍ibe̍r/ 'neighbour', /sle̍i/ 'sly', /θe̍i/ 'thigh'.

Note: /hix/ 'high' from Anglian héh.

4.2.8 Northern Middle English éʒe final gives Glenoe /i:/.

/di:/ 'to die', /fli:/ sb. & vb. 'fly', /i:/ 'eye' (from Anglian éʒe), /li:/ sb. & vb. 'lie', /li:e̍r/ 'liar', /wi:/ 'wee, small, little' (from Northern Middle English wei, Anglian wéʒe, see Survey of English Dialects s.v. wee).

Note: /tae/ vb. 'tie', ultimately from Anglian téʒan, /we̍i/ vb. 'weigh', ultimately from OE weʒan.

4.2.9 Northern Middle English éʒ + retained syllable gives Glenoe /i/.

/in/ 'eyes', /di:e̍n/ 'dying'.

4.2.10 ME ē1 followed by -r- in an open syllable gives Glenoe /i:/.

(A) from OE é: /hi:r/ 'here', /wi:re/ 'weary'

(B) from Anglian é (West Saxon íe, i-mutation of au): /hi:r(d)/ 'hear(d)'

(C) from Anglian é (West Saxon ǣ1): /fi:r/ 'fear', /ji:r/ 'year'

(D) from OE éo: /bi:r/ 'beer', /di:r/ 'dear' & 'deer', /dri:re/ 'dreary', /sti:r/ 'steer'.

Note: the vowel in /kwe̥:r/ 'queer' etc., seems to have been shortened and opened, undergoing secondary lengthening before r.

4.2.11 ME ē2 (i.e. /e̥:/)

This vowel from various sources generally gives Glenoe /i:/, and thus falls together with the present day development of ME ē1. ME ē2 probably developed as follows: /e̥:/ to /e:/ to /i:/, but in some words there was an early shortening to /e̥/ (which later underwent a secondary lengthening in Glenoe) and i (which became /ä/). In a number of words the intermediate stage, /e:/, has been preserved. As H. C. Wyld emphasises,(68) we are not really dealing with a sound change here. The choice seems to have been largely a matter of rival fashions in pronunciation, as was the case with -ar and -er (see 'ME er + consonant' above).

4.2.12 ME ē2 (like ē1) gives Glenoe /i:/ before -r.

4.2.13 ME ē2 gives Glenoe /i(:)/.

(A) from Anglian ǣ (from West Saxon ǣ2, the i-mutation of á) /hit/ 'heat', /hil/ 'heal', /itś/ 'each', /klin/ 'clean', /lid/ vb. 'lead', /min/ vb. 'mean', /ritś/ 'reach', /si:/ 'sea', /sprid/ 'spread', /hwit/ 'wheat'.

Note: /de:l(e̍r)/ vb. 'deal (dealer)'.

(B) from OE éa

/bin/ 'bean', /brid/ 'bread', /did/ 'dead', /dif/ 'deaf', /di:v/ 'to deafen', /hid/ 'head', /ist/ 'east', /lid/ 'lead (metal)', /lif/ 'leaf', /lik/ 'leek', /strim/ 'stream', /stip/ 'steep'.

Note /e:/ in /be:t/ 'beat', /de:θ/ 'death', /e:ste̍r/ 'Easter', /fle:/ 'flea', /gre:t/ 'great', /śe:f/ 'sheaf', /tśe:p/ 'cheap'.

(C) from OE e lengthened in open syllables

/mit & me:t/ 'meat', /spik/ 'speak', /stil/ 'steal'.

Note /e:/ in /e̍le:vn/ 'eleven', /se:vn/ 'seven', /śe:d/ 'shed'.

(D) from Scandinavian e lengthened in open syllables

/lik/ vb. 'leak', /ni:v/ 'fist'.

(E) from Scandinavian ǣ & œ̄

/tim/ 'pour out, pour (with rain)'.

But note /se:t/ 'seat' (from ON saeti), /skre:x/ 'screech' (from Old West Scandinavian skrǽkia); phrase /de̍ skre:x e̍ de:/ 'dawn'.

(F) from Old French e (from ai), e, ié

/de̍zi:z/ 'disease', /i:z/ 'ease', /kriś/ 'grease', /pis/ 'peace', /pli:z/ 'please', /plid/ 'plead'.

But note /kwe:t/ 'quiet', /re:zn/ 'reason', /se:zn/ 'season', /tre:t/ 'treat'.

(G) from Old French e (/e/ & /e̥/), in open syllables, before a final consonant, and before /s, st, tś/

/e̍gri:/ 'agree', /fibl/ 'feeble', /fist/ 'feast', /pritś/ 'preach', /vil/ 'veal'.

But note /be:k/ 'beak'; 'human mouth' (abusive), /be:st/ 'beast' (plural: /be:sts & bis/), /re:(e̍)l/ 'real', /tśe:t/ 'cheat'.

(H) from Old French (from tense /e:/ in Anglo-Norman in 13th century)

/fi:ve̍r/ 'fever', /grif/ 'grief', /nis/ 'niece', /pis/ 'piece', /re̍lif/ 'relief', /tśif/ 'chief'.

4.2.14 Shortening of ME ē2 to /e̥/ (often with subsequent lengthening) and /ä/

(A) from Anglian ǣ (West Saxon ǣ2)

/e̥rn/ 'errand', /he̥lθ/ 'health', /le̥:de̍r/ 'ladder', /me̥nt/ 'meant', /re̥:de/ 'ready'. But /ä/ in /äve̍r/ 'ever', /ävre/ 'every'.

(B) from OE éa

/he̥fe̍r/ 'heifer'. But /ä/ in /räd/ 'red'.

(C) from OE e in open syllables

/bre̥:k/ 'break', /e̍nste̥:d/ 'instead', /tre̥:d/ 'tread'.

(D) from Old French e in open syllables

/ple̥znt/ 'pleasant', /ple̥:źe̍r/ 'pleasure', /tre̥:źe̍r/ 'treasure'.

But /ä/ in /läźe̍r/ 'leisure', /mäźe̍r/ 'measure'.

4.2.15 ME ē2 followed by -r- in open syllables gives Glenoe /i:/ (cp. ē1 + r above).

(A) from OE e

/mi:r/'mare', /pi:r/'pear', /śi:r(z)/ 'shear(s)', /swi:r/'swear', /ti:r/ vb. 'tear', /wi:r/'wear'.

(B) from OE éa

/i:r/ 'ear', /ni:r/ 'near, stingy'. But note /ńjerle/ 'nearly'.

(C) from Scandinavian e

/gi:r/ 'gear, equipment'.

(D) from Old French e (in open accented syllables)

/e̍pi:r/ 'appear', /kli:r/ 'clear', /tśi:r/ vb. 'cheer'.

(E) Words of doubtful origin with Glenoe /i(:)/

/bisle̍nz/ 'first milk of a cow after calving', /frit/ 'a superstition', /frite/ 'superstitious', /griśe̍x/ 'glowing embers of a fire' (cp. Argyllshire Gaelic grìosach and Rathlin Irish gríseog), /ke̍ˈli:red/ 'hysterically hilarious', /kik/ 'peep', /̍pi:rege̍ld/ 'in an uncomfortably conspicuous position', /pi:re/ 'a peg-top', /pi:zwip/ 'peewit, lapwing', /sti:re/ 'an unappetising mixture (of food)'.

4.2.16 ME í

This vowel normally gives Glenoe /e̍i/ but /ae/ occurs before final voiced fricatives and r, as well as in hiatus and mostly in absolute Auslaut.

ME í gives Glenoe /e̍i/.

(A) from OE í

/hwe̍il(z)/ 'while (sometimes)', /hwe̍it/ adj. 'white'; vb. 'to pare', /ke̍ülre̍if/ 'hyper-sensitive to cold', 'frileux', /le̍im/ 'lime', /le̍in/ 'line'; 'main road', /pe̍ik/ 'large haycock', /ste:n-de̍ik/ 'dry stone wall', /stre̍id/ 'stride', /twe̍s(t)/ 'twice', /we̍is & we̍iz/ 'wise'.

Note: /e̥:rn/ 'iron' (from OE íren), /stre̥:k/ 'strike' (from OE strícan) with smoothing of the diphthong /e̍i/ to /e̥:/.

(B) from OE ý

/be̍il/ sb. 'boil', /he̍id/ sb. 'hide', /he̍idn/ sb. & vb. 'hiding', /le̍is/ 'lice', /me̍is/ 'mice', /pre̍id/ 'pride'.

(C) from Scandinavian í

/kwe̍i/ 'heifer' (from Old West Scandinavian kvíga), /θre̍iv & θraev/ 'thrive'.

(D) from Scandinavian ý: /be̍ik/ 'wild bees' nest'.

(E) from Old French í

/fe̍in/ 'fine', /ge̍id/ 'guide', /me̍in(e̍r)/ sb. 'mine(r)', /ne̍is/ 'nice', /pe̍int/ 'pint', /pre̍is/ 'price', /re̍is/ 'rice', /se̍in/ 'sign', /sle̍is/ 'slice', /spe̍is/ 'spice'.

Note /dźo̥es, plural dźo̥ese̍z/ 'joist' (from Old French giste).

4.2.17 OE y + nd gives Glenoe /e̍i/ (cp. OE i + nd above).

/ke̍in(le)/ adj. 'kind(ly)', /me̍in/ 'recollect' (ultimately from OE adj. gemynd), /me̍in/ sb. 'mind'.

4.2.18 ME lengthened í + ld gives Glenoe /e̍i/.

/me̍ild/ 'mild', /we̍il/ 'wild'; 'very' (as in the famous example /de̥m dźvks e̍z we̍il te:m/ 'those ducks are very tame').

Note: OE gylde gives Glenoe /gäld/.

4.2.19 OE i lengthened in open syllables gives Glenoe /e̍i/.

/ne̍in/ 'nine', /ste̍il/ 'stile', /te̍il/ 'tile'.

4.2.20 ME í gives Glenoe /ae/.

(A) from OE í

/e̍laev/ 'alive', /faev/ 'five', /saed/ 'scythe'

Note 1: Not only do we find final /ae/ in /mae/ 'my', /dae/ 'thy', but by analogy in the pronouns /maen/ 'mine', /daen/ 'thine' (cp. /me̍in/ [sb. 'mine'] immediately above).

Note 2: Observe the exceptional use of /e̍i/ + voiced fricative in /dre̍iv/ 'drive', /re̍iz/ 'rise', /we̍iz/ 'wise'. The two verbs along with /θre̍iv/ above may owe their /e̍i/ to analogy with other strong verbs, e.g. /re̍id/ 'ride', where /e̍i/ is normal. The vowel change is /re̍id/ - (pret.) /räd/ - (p.p.) /räd/, /re̍iz/ - (pret.) /räz/ - (p.p.) /räz/, etc. The form /we̍iz/ keeps the diphthong of the traditional Glenoe form /we̍is/. The /z/ is probably due to the influence of Larne.

(B) from OE ý

/daev/ 'dive', /drae/ 'dry', /haev/ 'hive', /kae/ 'cows'.

(C) from Scandinavian í

raev/ 'thrive' (also /θre̍iv/, see 4.2.16 (C) above).

(D) from Scandinavian ý

/skae/ 'sky'.

(E) from Old French í

/e̍raev/ 'arrive', /frae/ 'fry', /praez/ 'prize', /replae/ 'reply', /śaevz/ 'chives', /trae/ 'try'.

4.2.21 ME ír (final) gives Glenoe /aee̍r/ (occasionally /e̍ie̍r/).

(A) from OE ír

/spaee̍r/ 'spire'.

Note: /we̍ie̍r/ 'wire', and /e̍ie̍rn/ 'iron' alongside the more usual and traditional Glenoe form /e̥:rn/.

(B) from OE ýr

/baee̍r/ 'byre', /faee̍r/ 'fire', /haee̍r/ sb. & vb. 'hire', /taee̍r/ vb. 'tire'.

(C) from Old French ír

/taee̍r/ 'tyre', /retaee̍r/ 'retire', etc.

(D) Words of obscure origin with Glenoe /e̍i/

/dwe̍ibl/ 'to shake, wobble', /fe̍ik/ 'to fuss ineffectually at a job' (? from ON fíkja, 'to move briskly or restlessly'), /ge̍ip/ 'an uncouth lout', /gre̍ind än/ (for 'grimed in' by assimilation: m* to n before d) 'filthy with accumulated dirt' (? from Scandinavian(69) or ? Low German, cf. Universal English Dictionary & Survey of English Dialects), /ke̍itś/ sb. & vb. 'jolt', /kle̍ip/ 'a tell-tale'; 'to tell tales', /kre̍ind/ 'shrunken' (? from Gaelic crìon 'to wither'), /re̍ib/ 'a thin horse (or person)', /śe̍ie̍r/ 'to settle' (said e.g. of muddy water, and by extension of the brain or head of a person who is harassed), /ske̍it/ 'a sharp, glancing blow', /sle̍ip/ 'a flat sledge (used for transport of stones, etc.)'; 'a slack ungainly fellow'.

4.2.22 ME ō1 (i.e. long, close /o:/)

This vowel has developed in various ways in Glenoe. The main development has been /o:/ to /ï̥/ (No. 3), probably by centring to /ö/ followed by raising and unrounding. Before final r the centred ö was not raised but simply unrounded to /ë:/ (No. 7). In absolute Auslaut and before v complete fronting and unrounding results in /e:/ (No. 10). Before velars there is often evidence of a special development to /jv/ probably through /jü/. Through borrowing or influence from Larne some words have /ü:/, /ü̥ /, or /v/.(70)

4.2.23 ME ō1

(A) from OE ō1

1. /blï̥d(e)/ 'blood(y)', /brï̥de̍r/ 'brother', /dï̥n/ 'done', /dï̥z/ 'does', /efte̍(r)nï̥n/ 'afternoon', /fï̥t/ 'foot', /gï̥d/ 'good', /gï̥s (ga:b)/ 'goose(berry)', /gï̥m (be̍il)/ 'gum(boil)', /hï̥d/ 'hood', /ï̥de̍r/ 'other', /kïl/ vb. 'cool', /mï̥n/ 'moon', /rị̈d/ 'rood', /rï̥f/ 'roof', /rï̥t/ 'root', /sï̥n/, (& /śï̥n/, obsolete) 'soon', /sï̥t/ 'soot', /skï̥l/ 'school', /spï̥n/ 'spoon', /stï̥l/ 'stool', /śïn/ 'shoes', /śït/ 'shoot'.

Note /tiθ/ 'tooth' (by analogy with the plural); also /tiθek/ 'tooth-ache'.

2. gives Glenoe /(j)v/ when followed by velars.

/e̍nvx/ (& /e̍ńjvx/, obsolete) 'enough', /hjvk & c̥vk/ 'hook', /lvk/ 'look', /tvk/ 'took, taken', /tśvx/ 'tough' (from /*t́jvx/ 'tough').

Note /pjü:/ 'plough' (from */pĺjü:/).

3. gives Glenoe /ü:/ & /ü̥/, borrowed from Larne.

/bü̥k/ 'book', /fü̥d/ 'food', /kü̥k/ 'cook', /smü:d/ 'smooth', /tü̥l/ 'tool'.

4. gives Glenoe /v /, borrowed from Larne.

/flvd/ 'flood', /glvv/ 'glove', /hvne/ 'honey', /mvde̍r/ 'mother', /mvnde/ 'Monday', /mvnθ/ 'month'.

(B) from OE u lengthened in an open syllable gives /ï̥/ /e̍bï̥n/ 'above'.

(C) from Scandinavian ó gives Glenoe /ü̥/ and /v/.

/blü̥m/ 'bloom', /lü̥f/ 'palm of hand'.

But /krvk/ 'crook', /krvke̍t/ 'crooked'.

(D) from Old French o

1. gives Glenoe /ï̥/

/bï̥t/ 'boot', /fï̥l/ 'fool'.

2. gives Glenoe /e:/ /me:v/ 'move'.

3. gives Glenoe /ü:/ & /ü̥/: /prü:v/ 'prove', /prü̥f/ 'proof'.

4.2.24 ME ō1 when final gives Glenoe /e:/.

/de:/ 'do', /te:/ 'to'.

4.2.25 ME ō1 + r gives Glenoe /ë:/.

/bërd/ 'board' (from OE bórd), /flë:r/ 'floor' (from OE flór), /pë:r/ 'poor' (from ME póre, from Old French povre).

But note /dü̥:r/ 'door' (from ME dóre from OE duru), /mü̥:r/ 'moor' (from OE mór), and /hü:e̍r/ 'whore' (from Late OE hóre, cp. ON hóra).

4.2.26 ME ō2 (i.e. long, open /o:/)

This vowel from all sources regularly appears in Glenoe as /o(:)/.

4.2.27 ME ō2 gives Glenoe /o(:)/ with occasional secondary shortening before /k/.

(A) from OE o lengthened in open syllables

/fo:l/ 'foal', /flo:t/ 'float', /ho:l/ 'hole', /ho:p/ vb. 'hope', /ko:l/ 'coal', /lo:ne̍n/ 'lane' (from OE lone & suffix -ing), /lo:s/ vb. 'lose' & /lo:st/ pret. 'lost' (from OE losade; the form /lo:s/ is probably a back formation on losade rather than a direct development of OE losian, which would give rise to a voiced /z/), /no:z/ 'nose', /ro:z/ 'rose', /smok/ 'smoke', /so:k/ 'soak', /so:l/.'sole (of foot)', /sto:v/ 'stove', /θo:l/ 'endure, bear, stand' (from OE tholian), /θro:t/ 'throat'.
Note: /jo̥:k/ 'yoke', 'contraption' (with long, open /o:/).

(B) from Old French o

/bro:ts/ 'brooch', /klo:k/ 'cloak', /klo:s/ 'close', (the surname Close is /klo:ś/, /ko:t/ 'coat', /ko:tś/ 'coach', /mo:śn/ 'motion', /no:śn/ 'notion', /no:t/ 'note', /pok/ 'poke, bag', & /poke̍t/ 'pocket' (both from Old Norman French poque, 'poke'), /po:tśe̍r/ 'poacher', /ro:b/ 'robe', /ro:st/ 'roast', /se̍po:z/ 'suppose', /to:st/ 'toast'.

(C) Words of obscure origin with Glenoe /o(:)/

/bo:s/ 'hollow, unsound', /bro:ze/ 'plump and healthy-looking (face)', /fo:ze/ 'spongy' (cp. Dutch voos), /ge̍ĺjo:r/ 'plenty' (from Gaelic go leór), /go:me/ 'to blunder around', /ho:g/ sb. 'stench' (? from French haut goût, which gives the obsolete hogoo, hogo, cf. Survey of English Dialects), /ko:gl̩e/ 'unsteady', /ko:l/ 'small bundle of hay', /lo:k/ 'luke-warm' (cf. ME hleuc, leuk, from OE *hléow, which probably gives rise to the alternative Glenoe form /lü:/), /pro:k(e̍r)/ 'to poke (a poker)', /ro:n & i:vro:n/ 'gutter-pipe', /sko:b/ vb. 'to remove a thin layer (e.g. of soil)', sb. 'bent hazel or willow rods used to keep down thatch' (? from scallop), /sno:k/ vb. 'snuffle' (? from Scandinavian, cf. Oxford English Dictionary), /so:rne̍x/ 'to rummage', /sto:vn/ 'very drunk', /stro:n/ 'small quantity (e.g. of tea) poured out', /to:dl/ 'toddle', /to:te/ 'tiny', /to:v(e)/ 'to brag (given to self-praise)'.

4.2.28 ME ō2 followed by r

(A) from OE or

/e̍fo:r/ & /befo:r/ 'before', /sko:r/ 'a score, twenty', /sno:r/ 'snore'.

(B) from Old French or

/glo:re/ 'glory', /ko:r/ 'core', /resto:r/ 'restore', /sto:r/ 'store', /sto:re/ 'story, falsehood'.

4.2.29 ME ú

This vowel, from whatever source, normally develops into Glenoe /ü:/ or /ü̥/ without diphthongisation. Occasional unrounding to /v/ occurs and diphthongal forms with /e̍ü/ have intruded from Larne.

4.2.30 ME ú gives Glenoe /ü:/ & /ü̥/.

(A) from OE ú or u lengthened in open syllables

/brü/ 'brow', /bvrnbrü:/ 'river-bank', /brü̥n/ 'brown', /drü̥θ(e)/ 'drought, thirst(y)', /dü̥k/ 'to duck, submerge in water' (also /dźü̥k/ 'to duck, to dodge down' etc. from */d́jü̥k/), /dü̥n/ adv. & prep, 'down', /e̍bü̥t/ 'about', /hü:/ 'how', /hü̥s/ 'house', /klü̥t/ 'a clout, a cloth', /kü:/ 'cow', /lü̥d/ 'loud', /lü̥s/ 'louse', /mü̥s/ 'mouse', /mü̥θ/ 'mouth', /nü:/ 'now', /prü̥d/ 'proud', /rü̥m/ 'room', /rü̥st(e)/ 'rust(y)', /spü̥t(n)/ 'spout(ing)', /stü̹p/ vb. 'stoop', /sü:/ 'sow', /sü̹k/ 'suck', /trüt/ 'trout', /tü̥n/ 'town', /θü̥m/ 'thumb', /θü:zn/ 'thousand', /ü̥t/ 'out', /we̍θü̥t/ 'without'.

Note: shortening and unrounding in /dźvk/ sb. 'duck' (from */d́jvk/, cp. paragraph above), /hvzbn/ 'husband', /krvmz & grvml/ 'crumbs', /rvx/ 'rough', /svp/ 'sup, sip, drink (soup)', /vs/ (& /e̍z/) 'us'.

Note also /e̍ü/ from Larne in /be̍üns/ 'bounce', /kle̍ụ̈d/ 'cloud', /kre̍ụ̈d/ 'crowd', /se̍üθ/ 'south'.

(B) from Scandinavian ú (long or lengthened)

/drü̥n/ 'drown', /drü̥p/ 'droop', /skü̥l/ 'scowl',(71) /strü̥p/ 'spout of kettle'.(72)

(C) from Old French u & ou (long or lengthened)

/dü̥t/ 'doubt', /(e̍kü̥nt/ 'account', /e̍lü:/ 'allow', /kü̥nsl/ 'council', /kü̥nt/ 'count', /krü̥n/ 'crown', /pü̥de̍r/ 'powder', /rü̥n/ 'round', /skrü:/ 'screw' (Anglo-French escroue), /sü̥n/ 'sound' (without R.P. excrescent d), /sü̥p/ 'soup', /trü:ze̍rz/ 'trousers'.

Note shortening and unrounding in /mvnt(n)/ 'mount(ain)', /vns/ 'ounce'.

Note also /e̍ü/ probably from Larne, in /e̍ke̍ünt/ 'account', /ke̍ütś/ 'couch', /kre̍üne̍r/ 'coroner', /ste̍üt/ 'stout'.

(D) Words of doubtful origin with /ü:/ & /ü̥/

/brü̥gl/ 'a clumsy workman', /blü̥te̍rd & blï̥te̍rd/ 'drunk', /drü̥k(e̍t)/ 'soak(ed)', /fü̥f/ 'cry, weep', /kü̥ke̍r/ 'spoil (a child)', /lü̥de̍r/ 'a heavy blow', /pü̥k/ 'pull (hair)', /skü̥p/ 'peak (of a cap)', /skü̥t/ 'to squirt (water etc.), to dash', /snü̥t/ 'snout', /stü̥k/ 'a shock of sheaves', /stü̥n/ 'throb with pain', /sü̥re̍k/ 'wild sorrel'.

4.2.31 ME úr final

(A) from OE úr

1. gives Glenoe /ü:e̍r/: /sü:e̍r/ 'sour', /śü:e̍r/ 'shower'.

2. gives Glenoe /ü̥:r/: /ü̥:r/ 'our' (unemphatic /we̍r/).

3. gives Glenoe /e̍üe̍r/ probably from Larne: /te̍üe̍r/ 'tower'.

(B) from Old French our/ur

1. gives Glenoe /ü:e̍r/: flü:e̍r/ 'flour, flower', /pü:e̍r/ 'power', /ü:e̍r/ 'hour'.

2. gives Glenoe /u:r/: /stu:r/ 'dust' (from Anglo-French estur).

(C) In words of doubtful origin

Glenoe /ü:e̍r/: /glü:e̍r/ 'glower, scowl'; Glenoe /ü̥:r/: /pü̥:r/ 'pour'.

4.3 The Diphthongs

4.3.1 ME ai (ei)

The ME diphthong ei seems to have fallen together with ME ai at an early stage, especially in the North.(73) Both diphthongs normally give rise to Glenoe /e:/ although in a few words the long, open /e̥:/ survives, representing an older stage of development. Occasionally also the old diphthongs have been preserved, but under the form /e̍i/, thus falling together with one of the diphthongs arising out of ME í.

4.3.2 ME ai gives Glenoe /e:/.

(A) from OE aeg

/bre:n/ 'brain', /de:/ 'day', /de:ze/ 'daisy', /he:l/ 'hail', /me:/ vb. 'may' (but /me̥be/ 'maybe'), /me:n/ adj. 'main', /ne:l/ 'nail', /se:d/ 'said', /sne:l/ 'snail', /te:l/ 'tail'.

Note: /me̥:ste̍r/ 'master' with /e̥:/.

(B) from Old French ai

1. /fe:l/ 'fail', /fe:θ/ 'faith' (& /fe̥:θ/ & /he̥:θ/ as interjections), /me:/ 'May', /te:le̍r/ 'tailor', /we:t/ 'wait'.

Note: /ple̥:ste̍r/ 'plaster'; 'insincere person'.

Note also: /pe̍i/ 'pay', /ste̍i/ 'stay'.

2. before -n, -nt, -nź in some dialects, various changes take place, but Glenoe normally has /e:/ as elsewhere.

(a) /ge:n/ 'gain', /i̥ksple:n/ 'explain', /pe:n/ 'pain', /ple:n/ adj. 'plain', /tre:n/ 'train', /tśe:n/ 'chain'.

(b) /ke̍mple:nt/ 'complaint'.

(c) /de:nźe̍r/ 'danger', /e:nźl/ 'angel', /stre:nz(e̍r)/ 'strange(r)', /tśe:nź/ 'change'.

4.3.3 ME ai from Early ME ei gives Glenoe /e:/.

(A) from OE

/e:l(e̍n)/ 'ail(ing)', /le:d/ 'laid', /ple:/ 'play', /re:n/ 'rain', /se:l/ 'sail'.

Note: /we̍i/ 'way', /e̍ˈwo̥:/ 'away' (probably via /-we̥:/ to /-wa:/ to /-wo̥:/, cf. the changes /we̥:b/ - /wa:b/ and /twa:/ - /two̥:/.

(B) from Anglian ég (West Saxon áeg)

/gre:/ 'grey'.

But note /he̍i/ 'hay', /kle̍i/ 'clay'.

Note also /näxe̍r/ 'neigh' (West Saxon hnáegan); /ki:/ 'key' is probably from Larne.

(C) from Scandinavian

/(e̍)ge:n/ & /(e̍)gi̥n/ 'again(st)',(74) /he:n/ 'save, use sparingly' (from ON hegna).

(D) from Scandinavian ei

/be:t/ 'bait', /de:/ 'they', /de:r/ 'their', /he:l/ 'healthy', /re:k/ 'wander', /re:z/ 'raise', /ste:k/ 'steak', /we:k/ 'weak'.

Note /e̍i/ 'always' (from Old West Scandinavian ei).(75)

Note also /sle̍i/ 'sly' (from Old West Scandinavian sløgr, ME slei).

(E) from Old French ei

/pre:/ 'pray', /pre:z/ 'praise', /re:l/ 'rail', /re:zn/ 'raisin'.

But note /ple̥:t/ 'plait' (from Old French pleit, plet).

/be̥ge̍r-ple̥:t/ 'wrinkled (of a garment)'.

(F) from Old French ei, eg followed by -n or -nt

1. /re:n/ 'reign', /spre:n/ 'sprain', /stre:n/ 'strain', /ve:n/ 'vein'.

But note /re̍in/ 'rein'.

2. /fe:nt/ 'faint', /pe:nt/ 'paint'.

But /e̍kwe̥nt(nz)/ 'acquaint(ance)'.

4.3.4 ME ai followed by r gives Glenoe /e̥:/.

(A) from OE aeg: /fe̥:r/ 'fair'.

(B) from Old French ai, aie

/e̍fe̥:r/ 'affair', /e̥:r/ 'air', /pe̥:r/ 'pair', /tśe̥:r/ 'chair'.

4.3.5 ME ai from Early ME ei gives Glenoe /e̥:/.

(A) from OE áeg: /ste̥:r/ 'stair'.

(B) from Old French ei(e): /e̥:r/ 'heir', /de̍spe̥:r/ 'despair', /pre̥:r/ 'prayer'.

4.3.6 ME ei before the velar fricative /x/ gives Glenoe /e̥:/.

/e̥:xt(in)/ 'eight(een)', /e̥:xte/ 'eighty', /stre̥:xt/ 'straight', /we̥:xt/ 'weight'.

Note the Glenoe forms /e̥:de̍r/ 'either', /ne̥:de̍r/ 'neither' may also be considered here, as Early ME had a velar fricative ʒ before the th. Also the Glenoe form /fe̥:xt/ 'fight' points to ME *feihten.

4.3.7 ME au

This diphthong mostly results in Glenoe /o̥:/, with occasionally /o:/ perhaps from Larne, and a survival of /a:/, especially in certain words of French provenance.

(A) from OE ag gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/dro̥:/ 'draw', /ho̥:/ 'haw', /lo̥:/ 'law', /so̥:/ sb. 'saw'.

(B) from OE ág gives Glenoe /o:/: /o:/ 'to owe' (e.g. /a:m o: här two̥: pvn/ 'I owe her two pounds'), /o:n/ to own.

But note /e:n/ adj. 'own'.

(C) from OE aw gives Glenoe /o̥:/: /to̥:z/ 'taws' (ultimately from OE tawian).

But note /kla:/ 'claw' and /θe̍ü/ 'thaw'.

(D) from OE áw gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/blo̥:/ 'blow', /kro̥:/ sb. & vb. 'crow', /mo̥:/ 'mow', /ro̥:/ 'row, series', /sno̥:/ 'snow', /so̥:/ 'to sow', /θro̥:e̍n/ 'perverse' (lit. 'thrown').

Note, however, /no:/ 'know', pret. /kno:d/, /slo:/ 'slow', /θro:/ 'throw', pret. /θro:d/.

Also note /se̍ül/ 'soul' (from OE sáwl, etc.)

(E) from OE eaw gives Glenoe /o̥:/: /ro̥:/ 'raw'.

Note here: /stre:/ & (rare) /stro:/ 'straw', /stre:be̍re/ 'strawberry'.

(F) from OE éaw gives Glenoe /o:/: /śo:/ 'show'.

(G) Note that OE hafoc gives Glenoe /ho̥:k/.

(H) from Old French au, ou

1. gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

/beko̥:z/ 'because', /bro̥:n/ 'brawn', /fo̥:lt/ 'fault', /fro̥:d/ 'fraud', /ko̥:śe̍n/ 'caution', /ko̥:z/ 'cause', /po̥:/ 'paw'.

2. gives Glenoe /a:/.

/dźa:ndez/ 'jaundice', /la:ndre/ 'laundry', /pa:m/ 'palm (of hand)', /sa:s/ 'sauce', /sa:se̍r/ 'saucer'.

(I) from Scandinavian sources gives Glenoe /o̥:/ in /flo̥:/ 'flaw', (? from ON flaga), /kro̥:l/ 'crawl' (from Old West Scandinavian krafla).

But note /a:kwe̍rd/ 'awkward' (Scandinavian *avukt-thwert).

4.3.8 Words with ME au as well as a from Old French nasalised a /ä/

These words generally have /a(:)/ in Glenoe, e.g. /ant/ 'aunt', /dans/ 'dance', /dźa:m/ 'jamb', /grant/ 'grant', /i̥gza:mpl/ 'example', /plant/ 'plant', /sa:mpl/ 'sample', /tśans/ 'chance'.

But note /bre̥nś/ 'branch' (from ME branche, braunch; Old French branche), /he̥nś/ 'haunch' (from Old French hanche); cf. 4.1.2 (C) 2. above.

Note also /tśe:mbe̍r/ 'chamber'.

4.3.9 Words of doubtful origin with Glenoe /a(:)/ for R.P. /o:/

/dźa:/ 'jaw' (from ME jow(e, from Old French jou(e; later jawe & chaw(e ? influenced by ME chawl from OE ceafl: 'jaw'); /dźant(n-ka:r)/ 'jaunt(ing-car)'.

4.3.10 ME ou

From whatever source, ME ou has mostly resulted in Glenoe /e̍ü/, the same diphthong which has developed out of ME -ol (cf. 4.1.21 above). The first element was evidently unrounded to a type of a- sound and then centred to /e̍/, while the second element was also centred to /ü/. This diphthong does not appear before the velar fricative /x/, which is preserved in Glenoe. If it did develop earlier to /au/, the diphthong was flattened again to /o̥:/.

4.3.11 ME ou gives Glenoe /e̍ü/.

(A) from OE ów

/beste̍ü/ 'bestow, give away' (from ME bestówen, OE be- & stówigan), /gre̍ü/ 'grow'.

(B) from OE eow: /je̍ü/ 'ewe'.

(C) from OE éow: /fe̍üe̍r/ 'four', /tśe̍ü/ 'chew'. But note /śü/ 'sew' (from OE séowian).

Before /x/ generally gives Glenoe /o̥:/.

(D) from OE og & oh

/bo̥:xt/ 'bought', /do̥:xte̍r/ 'daughter', /tro̥:x/ 'trough'.

But note /bo:/ 'bow (weapon)' and /re:nbo:/ 'rainbow'.

(E) from OE óh

/bro̥:xt/ 'brought', /o̥:xt/ 'aught, anything' (obsolete, usually /̍o̥neθe̍n/), /θo̥:xt/ 'thought'.

Note: OE nó(wi)ht 'nought, not' gives Glenoe /no:/ with loss of velar and final -t.

(F) from Scandinavian au, ów, o̥u, og gives Glenoe /e̍ü/.

/de̍üp/ 'backside', /fle̍ü/ 'peat-bog', /ge̍ül/ & /je̍ül/ 'howl', /le̍ün/ 'calm, quiet', /le̍üp/ vb. & sb. 'leap' (alongside the form /le̥:p/), cf. the local Salmon Leap /sa:me̍n le̍üp/ on the Glynn River, /le̍üs/ 'loose', /le̍üz/ 'loosen', /re̍üe̍n/ 'mountain ash'.

Note Glenoe /o:/ in /do:f/ 'dull, hollow-sounding' (cf. Scots dowf),(76) /gopn/ 'a double handful' (from Old West Scandinavian gaupn).

(G) from Old French ou gives Glenoe /e̍ü/.

/be̍ül/ sb. 'bowl', /ke̍üp/ 'to overturn', /re̍ul(e̍r)/ 'roll(er)'

(H) Words of doubtful etymology with Glenoe /e̥ü/

/be̍üx/, also /ble̍üxe̍r/ and /we̍üx/: 'cough' (imitative), /ge̍üp/ 'throb with pain', /kre̍üde/ 'cream cheese', /kre̍ül/ 'smallest pig of a litter'; 'very small person' (derogatory), /mje̍üt/ 'a faint sound', /pe̍ü/ 'head, poll', /pe̍ül/ 'pole' (OE pál should give Glenoe */pe:l/), /pe̍üne/ 'pony', /se̍üe̍nz/ 'a dish like flummery' (from Gaelic Samhain — All-Hallowtide — as the dish was traditionally eaten at that season)(77); /se̍üs/ 'a heavy fall'.

4.3.12 ME iu, eu /eu & e̹u/, and ǘ from Anglo-Norman ǘ

All these sounds ran together as iu at a very early stage and have produced /(j)ü:/ & /(j)ü̥(:)/ in Glenoe.

4.3.13 ME iu

(A) from OE íw: /spjü:/ 'spew', /tśü:zde/ 'Tuesday'.

(B) from Anglo-Norman iu (from Old French ieu): /dźü:/ 'Jew', /rü̥l/ 'rule'.

4.3.14 ME eu (with close /e/, i.e. /eu/)

(A) from OE éow (including Anglian íow, éow — West Saxon íew)

/brü:/ 'brew', /grü:/ usually /gro:d/ 'grew', /ńjü:/ 'new', /ńjü:e̍ns/ 'novelty', /ńjü:/ usually /no:d/ 'knew', /rü:/ 'rue', /trü/ 'true', /trü̥θ/ 'truth', /tśü: & tśe̍ü & tśo̥:/ 'chew', /θrü:/ usually /θro:d/ 'threw'.

(B) from Anglo-Norman eu (with close /e/)

/bjü:/ & /blü:/ 'blue', /dźü:e̍l/ 'jewel', /fjü:e̍l/ 'fuel'.

4.3.15 ME eu (with open /e̹/, i.e. /e̹u/)

(A) from OE éaw

/dźü:/ 'dew', /fjü:/ 'few', /hjü: & c̥ü:/ 'hew'.

(B) from OE eow

/śü:/ 'sew', /strü:/ 'strew', /jü:/ (rare, usually) /je̍ü:/ 'ewe'.

(C) from Anglo-Norman (& Old French) eau: /bjüte(fl)/ 'beauty (beautiful)'.

4.3.16 ME ü

(A) from Anglo-Norman ü (from Old French ü)

/brü̥t/ 'brute', /dźü:/ 'due', /dźü̥k/ 'duke', /dźü̥rn/ 'during', /fjü̥nre̍l/ 'funeral', /kjü̥:ree̍s/ 'curious', /krü:e̍l/ 'cruel', /refjü:z/ 'refuse', /stśü̥pe̍t/ 'stupid', /tśü̥b/ 'tube'.

Note /tśü̹n/ 'tune' (whose etymology is obscure).

Note also /ü̥/ is lengthened before r: /kjü̥:r/ 'cure', /pjü̥:r/ 'pure', /śü̥:r/ 'sure'.

(B) from Anglo-Norman ü (from Old French üi)

/dźü̥n/ 'June', /frü̥t/ 'fruit', /pe̍rsü:/ 'pursue', /pjü:/ 'pew', /sü̥t/ & /śü̥t/ 'suit'.

4.3.17 ME oi and ui

These diphthongs are generally only found in words of French origin and both generally result in Glenoe /o̥e/.

(A) from ME oi, Anglo-Norman o̜i (from Old French o̜i)

/dźo̥e/ 'joy', /e̍mplo̥e(me̍nt)/ 'employ(ment)', /lo̥ee̍l/ 'loyal', /mo̥est(śe̍r)/ 'moist(ure)', /no̥ez/ 'noise', /ro̥ee̍l/ 'royal', /tśo̥es/ 'choice', /vo̥es/ 'voice'.

(B) from ME ui (usually written oi), Anglo-Norman ui (Old French o̜i, ui)

/bo̥el/ vb. 'boil', /dźo̥en(t)/ 'join(t)', /ko̥en/ 'coin', /o̥el/ 'oil', /o̥entme̍nt/ 'ointment', /po̥ent/ 'point', /so̥el/ 'soil', /spo̥el/ 'spoil'. But note /pvźn/ 'poison'.

4.4 Vowels in unstressed syllables

The Glenoe vowel most commonly encountered in unstressed syllables is /e̍/, but two other vowels also occur, viz. /i̥/, which is rarely found stressed (cp. 3.3.2 above), and a sound which seems to have developed as a phonemic variant of this, viz. /e/, which is opener and very slightly longer.

4.4.1 ME a unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /e̍/.

1. in prefixes /e̍bü̥t/ 'about', /e̍dre̥:s/ 'address', /e̍wo̥:/ 'away'.

2. medially: /alme̍ni̥k/ 'almanac', /dźe̥rme̍ne/ 'Germany'.

But note /e/ in /i̥kstravege̍nt/ 'extravagant', /te̥steme̍nt/ 'testament'.

Note also /ø/ in /karme̍l/ 'caramel', /kvmpne/ 'company'.

3. in the following endings: able, al, an, ance, ant, ar, ard, as, ate, enger, ward(s):

/ite̍bl/ 'eatable', /fe̍inl̩/ 'final', /rvfe̍n/ 'ruffian', /ńjü:e̍ns/ 'novelty', /ägne̍re̍nt/ 'uncouth', /re̥gje̍le̍r/ 'regular', /drvnke̍rd/ 'drunkard', /kanve̍s/ 'canvas', /se̥pre̍t/ 'separate', /pase̍ndźe̍r/ 'passenger', /a:kwe̍rd/ 'awkward'.

(B) gives Glenoe /i̥/ in the ending -ac.

/alme̍ni̥k/ 'almanac', /e̍zi̥k/ 'Isaac'.

(C) gives Glenoe /e/ in the endings ace, acle, age(r).

/svrfes/ 'surface', /märekl/ 'miracle', /manedź(e̍r)/ 'manage(r)', /paretś/ 'porridge (porage)'.

(D) gives Glenoe /ø/ in the ending -ary: /be̍ündre/ 'boundary'.

4.4.2 ME e unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in prefixes: /e̍nkwe̍ie̍r/ 'enquire'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e̍/ & /ø/ medially

/be:ke̍re/ 'bakery', /flatre/ 'flattery', /mo̥dre̍t/ 'moderate'. But: /ävre/ 'every', /mästre/ 'mystery', /äntre̍st/ 'interest'.

(C) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings ed, el, en, ense, er, es, ess, est, et, less, ment, ness.

/e̥nde̍d/ 'ended', /krvke̍t/ 'crooked', /ka:nl/ 'candle', /kätśe̍n/ 'kitchen', /le̍ise̍nz/ 'license', /e̍bidźe̍nt/ 'obedient', /täme̍r/ 'timber', /hu̥se̍z/ 'houses', /mästre̍s/ 'mistress', /e̍üle̍st/ 'oldest', /bvle̍t/ 'bullet', /fvźe̍nle̍s/ 'tasteless', /bräleme̍nt/ 'uproar, fuss', /θro̥:e̍nne̍s/ 'perversity'.

Note, however: /dvtśe̥s/ 'duchess', /pränse̥s/ 'princess'.

4.4.3 ME i unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in prefixes: /e̍ligl/ 'illegal', /e̍me̥ns/ 'immense'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e̍/ medially: /e̍madźe̍nre/ 'imaginary'.

(C) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings ible, id, il(e), in(e), ing, ip, ist, it(e).

/se̥nse̍bl/ 'sensible', /ase̍d/ 'acid', /säve̍l/ 'civil', /anźe̍n/ 'engine', /śäle̍n/ 'shilling', /tśü̥le̍p/ 'tulip', /ke̥me̍st/ 'chemist', /o̥:pse̍t/ 'opposite'.

Note, however: /so̥:led/ 'solid', /barl/ 'barrel' (one syllable), /fe̥me̍ne̍in/ 'feminine', /dźe̥ńjee̍in/ 'genuine'.

(D) gives Glenoe /i̥/ in the endings ic, ish.

/mjü:zi̥k/ 'music', /fäni̥ś/ 'finish'.

But note /e̍ˈräθme̍ˌtäk/ etc. with secondary stress on the final syllable.

(E) gives Glenoe /e/ in the endings ie(y), ice.

/släpe/ 'slippery', /o̥fes/ 'office', /no:tes/ 'notice'.

But observe /po:le̍s/ 'police'.

4.4.4 ME o unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the prefixes con, com, for, o, pro, to.

/ke̍ntro:l/ 'control', /ke̍mät/ 'commit', /fe̍rbae/ 'besides', /e̍bze̥:rv/ 'observe', /pre̍po:z/ 'propose', /te̍ma:te̍/ 'tomato'.

Note: /de̍de:/ 'to-day', /de̍mo̥:re̍/ 'to-morrow', /de̍gäder/ 'together'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e̍/ medially: /väge̍re̍s/ 'vigorous'.

But note Glenoe /ø/ in /präzne̍r/ 'prisoner', /ri:zne̍bl/ 'reasonable', /ve̍ile̍t/ 'violet'.

(C) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings dom, o, ock, on, op, or, ot.

/kin̥de̍m/ 'kingdom', /präte/ 'potato', /bvle̍k/ 'bullock', /lvnde̍n/ 'London', /wale̍p/ 'wallop', /do̥:kte̍r/ 'doctor', /pare̍t/ 'parrot'.

Also in the unstressed elements -bord, -worth. /kvbe̍rt/ 'cupboard', /he:pe̍rθ)/ 'halfpennyworth'.

(D) gives Glenoe /ø/ in the ending ory.

/fe̥ktre/ 'factory', /hästre/ 'history', /re̥ktre/ 'rectory'.

4.4.5 ME u & ou unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /o̥/ in the prefix un: /ˌo̥nˈno:n/ 'unknown', cf. /ˌo̥nde̍r(̍sta:n)/ 'under(stand)'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e̍/ medially: /väśe̍sle/ 'viciously'.

(C) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings ful, our, ous.

/de̍strvkśe̍nfe̍l (& /-fl̩/) 'destructive', /we:ste̍rfe̍l (& /-fl̩/) 'wasteful'.

(Note in certain traditional forms the loss of l: /go:pnfe̍/ 'double handful', /hanfe̍/ 'handful', /mü̥θfe̍/ 'mouthful', /pitefe̍/ 'pitiful', /spï̥nfe̍/ 'spoonful'.)

/ne̍ibe̍r/ 'neighbour', /parle̍r/ 'parlour', /dźe̥nre̍s/ 'generous', /me̍stśi:vee̍s/ 'mischievous'.

(D) the words but and us when unemphatic become in Glenoe /be̍t/, /e̍z/.

4.4.6 Final ou (ow) unaccented

This suffix, which develops from consonant + w, gives Glenoe /e̍/.

/bo̥re̍/ sb. 'barrow'; vb. 'borrow', /mo̥re̍/ 'the other shoe of a pair'; vb. 'to work (unpaid) to help a neighbour', /ne̥re̍/ 'narrow', /swale̍/ sb. 'swallow' (N.B. /swale/ vb. 'swallow').

Note two /e̍/ sounds in hiatus in the p.p. of verbs like /fo̥le̍e̍n/ 'following'.

4.4.7 Old French ü /y:/ unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /(j)e/ (probably from /jü/) in absolute Auslaut.

/arge/ 'argue', /äśe/ 'issue', /ke̍ntäńje/ 'continue', /ne̥fje/ 'nephew', /täśe/ 'tissue', /vaĺje/ 'value'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings un(e), ur(e).

/fo̥rtśe̍n/ 'fortune', /fjü̥tśe̍r/ 'future', /fe:te̍r/ 'feature', /kre:te̍r/ 'creature', /päkte̍r/ 'picture', /pastśe̍r/ 'pasture'. The /-te̍r/ forms are traditional, the /-tśe̍r/ forms probably comparatively recent importations from Larne.

(C) -u- following stressed syllable gives Glenoe /je̍/, /e/, /ø/.

1. /de̥pje̍te/ 'deputy', /ke̍ntäńje̍l/ 'continual', /vaĺje̍bl/ 'valuable', /re̥gje̍le̍r/ 'regular'.

Note the loss by slurring of an /e̍/ in /ke̍ntäńje̍l/, /vaĺje̍bl/ which should have /-je̍e̍l/ and /-je̍e̍bl/.

2. /ämpede̍nz/ 'impudence', /ämpede̍nt/ 'impudent'.

3. /pe̍rtikle̍r/ 'particular', /redikle̍s/ 'ridiculous'.

(D) -u- with stressed syllable following gives Glenoe /je/ & /je̍/

/e̥djeke:śn/ 'education', /sät́jee:śn/ 'situation'.

But /de̥pje̍te:śn/ 'deputation', /re̥pje̍te:śn/ 'reputation', etc.

(E) -uit gives Glenoe /e̍t/: /bäske̍t/ 'biscuit'.

4.4.8 ME ai, ei unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /e̍/ in the endings ail (eil), ain (ein), ais (eis), or rather gives syllabic l and n.

1. /bate̍l/ or rather /batl/ 'battle', /bo̹:tl/ 'bottle', /tre̥:vl/ 'travel, walk'.

2. /barge̍n/ 'bargain', /ka:ptn/ 'captain', /mvnʔn/ 'mountain'.

3. /fvrne̍s/ 'furnace', /harne̍s/ 'harness', /pale̍s/ 'palace'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e/ in the ending ai (ay).

/ho̥le̍de/ 'holiday', /jäste(r)de/ 'yesterday', /o̥newe/ 'anyhow', /se̥te̍(r)de/ 'Saturday'.

4.4.9 ME oi unstressed

(A) gives Glenoe /o̹e/ in /to̹rto̹ez/ 'tortoise'.

(B) gives Glenoe /e/ in /śame/ 'chamois'.

Note the complete loss of a vowel or a syllable in: /ba:ke/ 'tobacco', /präte̍/ 'potato', /ste̥reke̍t/ 'hysterical' (with assimilation of -al to old p.p.-adj. ending, cp. /krvke̍t/ 'crooked', etc).

Foreword | Introduction | Phonetics | Vowels | Long Vowels | Consonants | Conclusion | Notes