Phonetics Key

alow front unrounded vowel
æælow front unrounded vowel, higher than [a]
ɑlow central unrounded vowel
ɒlow back unrounded vowel
emid-close front unrounded vowel
closer mid-front unrounded vowel
more open mid-close front unrounded vowel
ømore open mid-close front rounded vowel
ɛmid open front unrounded vowel
ɛ̹more open front unrounded vowel
iclose high front unrounded vowel
ιɪopen high front unrounded vowel
ι̹more open high front unrounded vowel
lɪlower high central unrounded vowel
ohigher mid back rounded vowel
more open upper mid back unrounded vowel
ɔlower mid back rounded vowel
ɤhigher mid back unrounded vowel
uhigh back rounded vowel
ɷʊ usemi high back rounded vowel
ʉhigh central rounded vowel
yhigh front rounded vowel
ysemi high front rounded vowel
ə émid central unrounded vowel
ʌlower mid back unrounded vowel
pvoiceless bilabial stop
bvoiced bilabial stop
mvoiced bilabial nasal
ʍvoiceless bilabial fricative
wvoiced labiovelar continuant
fvoiceless labio-dental fricative
vvoiced labio-dental fricative
tvoiceless interdental stop
dvoiced interdental stop
ninterdental nasal
θvoiceless interdental fricative
ðdvoiced interdental fricative
linterdental lateral
tvoiceless alveolar stop
dvoiced alveolar stop
nvoiced alveolar nasal
voiced syllabic alveolar nasal
ɲvoiceless palatalised nasal
nvoiced palatalised nasal
svoiceless alveolar fricative
śpalatalised voiceless alveolar fricative
zvoided alveolar fricative
źpalatalised voiced alveolar fricative
ts̹palatalised voiceless alveolar affricate
dz̹palatalised voiced alveolar affricate
rvoiced alveolar trill
ɾvoiced alveolar flap
ɹvoiced alveolar frictionless continuant
lvoiced alveolar lateral
retroflex voiced alveolar lateral
palatalised voiced alveolar lateral
ɫvelarised voiced alveolar lateral
łvoiceless alveolar lateral fricative
voiced syllabic alveolar lateral
tsvoiceless alveolar affricate
šʃvoiceless alveo-palatal fricative
žʒvoiced alveo-palatal fricative
voiceless alveo-palatal affricate
ʤvoiced alveo-palatal affricate
cvoiceless palatal fricative
jvoiced palatal fricative
ʎvoiced palatal lateral
kvoiceless velar stop
gvoiced velar stop
xvoiceless velar fricative
ŋvelar nasal
ʀvoiced uvular trill
hvoiceless laryngeal fricative
ɦvoiced laryngeal fricative
ʔglottal stop
ˈprimary stress on following syllable
ˌsecondary stress on following syllable
ːfor vowels: pronounced with longer duration
(ː)pronounced with variable longer duration
for vowels: pronounced raised
for vowels: pronounced lowered
for vowels: pronounced retracted
for vowels: pronounced fronted
`pronounced with low tone or pitch
  ̥for vowels: pronounced without voicing
.for consonants: pronounced without voicing
  ̤for vowels: pronounced as more centralised
  ̹for vowels: pronounced as lower or more open
  ̹for consonants: pronounced with palatisation
  ̜for consonants: pronounced with retroflex colouring
hfor consonants: pronounced with aspiration
wpronounced with rounded offglide
əfor vowels: pronounced with centering offglide
  ̪pronounced with dentalisation
pronounced with glottal release
´for vowels: pronounced with low tone or pitch
´for consonants: pronounced with palatalisation