Epilogue (1922-1930)

Eleanor Hull
Epilogue (1922-1930) (Notes) | start of chapter

[1] T. M. Healy, Letters and Leaders of my Day, ii, p. 658.

[2] A fine building just approaching completion and intended by the outgoing Government as the new Science and Art Department.

[3] The other two were Ernie O’Malley and Oscar Traynor. In a letter of 30 June alluding to the blowing up of the Four Courts, the latter wrote: “Congratulations on your bomb. If you have any more of these, let me know.”

[4] Mr. T. M. Healy remarks that when the history of the relations of the Castle to the Irish people for 700 years are remembered, it is curious to find that Michael Collins forgot his engagement with the Viceroy to take it over, and when he was rung up by telephone it was found that he had gone elsewhere. Through the courtesy of Lord FitzAlan another day was appointed.

[5] Griffith never agreed to this panel election.

[6] Speech in August, 1921.

[7] Speech in October, 1921.

[8] P. S. O’Hegarty, The Victory of Sinn Féin, p. 84.

[9] “If they could make Government impossible in the South, they could make it impossible in the North.” Speech in April, 1922.

[10] The Leader, San Francisco, March 18, 1922.

[11] Speech at Thurles, in March, 1922; he repeated the same words next day at a meeting at Kilkenny.

[12] Kevin O’Higgins, in his capacity as Minister of Justice, had been obliged to give the orders for the execution of Rory O’Connor and others of the insurgents, who had formerly been his friends. The father of Kevin O’Higgins had been murdered by the Insurgents in the presence of his wife, in February, 1923, and thus shared the fate of his son. One of his brothers had been killed in France and another was in the Navy.

[13] The Dominions who are Members of the League of Nations are Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the Irish Free State. India also is a member.

[14] For further quotations from this important speech, see Appendix vii, p. 467.

[15] Two of the signatories to the Treaty disowned their signatures on returning to Dublin.

[16] For the two oaths see Appendix v, p. 465.

[17] Speech quoted in Denis Gwynn, The Irish Free State, 1922–1927.

[18] For details as to the composition of the different meetings of the Dáil, and other information regarding the departments of State, etc., see The Oireachtas Companion and Saorstat Guide, 1930.

[19] At the time of writing, this question is under the consideration of the Imperial Conference sitting in London.

[20] Denis Gwynn, The Irish Free State, where a large part of Mr. Fitzgerald’s speech is quoted.

[21] See Trade and Shipping Statistics, 1929, Department of Industry and Commerce, pp. iii, vi, xviii.

[22] Census of Population of Irish Free State on April 18, 1926; preliminary Report (1926).

[23] The emigration returns sprang up from 2,975 in 1919, to 15,531 in 1920, and in the first quarter of 1921, 4,770 people emigrated. A Proclamation of Dáil Éireann, then a Republican assembly, forbade emigration.

[24] Report of Coimisiún na Gaeltachta, 1925, pp. 10, 106-108.

[25] In 1891 there were 690,000 Gaelic speakers, but in 1911 the number had fallen to 580,000. See Stephen Gwynn, Ireland (1924), p. 148.

[26] It is significant that all the three leaders in the 1916 rebellion were of “foreign” descent, if we are to judge by their names. Pearse was proud of his English father, Griffith must have been of Welsh descent and de Valera had a Spanish father. MacSwiney’s mother was English. It is dangerous however, to judge entirely by proper names; for there is a constant tendency observable throughout Irish history to substitute English for Irish and Irish for English names.

[27] Speech of February 21, 1922.

[28] Kevin O’Higgins, L’Irlande d’ajourd’hui (1925).