Padraig Mac Giolla-Domhnaigh

Caulfield—The other forms of this name in Ireland, particularly in Ulster are Colfield and Cawfield, the latter name being generally pronounced Cawfield in the counties of Armagh and Tyrone.

The name Caulfield is the family name of the Earls of Charlemont, and as far as my researches have gone I can't find more than about five families of the name in Ulster who are of English origin, the ancestors of the Charlemont family coming to Ulster from Oxfordshire at the latter end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in the 16th century. Those of the name in Ulster and other parts of Ireland are anglicised forms of Irish sept names.

In South Tyrone and the districts of the bordering counties of Monaghan and Armagh, it is one of the anglicised forms of Mac Cathmhaoil (Campbell, which see).

In the districts of Omagh and Strabane, especially in the latter, the name McCawill, one of the anglicised forms of Mac Cathmhaoil, has been changed to Caulfield and M'Caulfield. In Omagh and Castlederg districts, M'Cowell and M'Cawell have likewise been anglicised Caulfield.

In the district of Kilkeel, Co. Down, M'Keown (Mac Eoghain) has been anglicised Caulfield. This sept M'Keown were in early times connected with the ancient church of Creggan "of the Green Bushes," at Crossmaglen, and another sept of the M'Keowns were long connected with the ancient parish of Derrynoon, both parishes in Co. Armagh.

Likewise, in the southern part of the county of Down, Cavanagh and M'Cavanagh has been anglicised Cawfield and Caulfield, and in eastern Tyrone, where the sept M' Cavanagh (Mac Caomhanaigh) was located, the Ulster Cavanaghs having no connection nor origin with the Cavanaghs and Kavanaghs of Leinster, who are correctly Mac Murchadha-Caomhanach.

The other references are, according to Father Wolfe, the O'Gamhnains (Goonan), in the counties of Galway and Mayo, districts not specified; Mac Conghamhna (Gaffney), in Mayo, district not specified; O'Gamhna (Gaffney), by O'Donovan, in midland counties and Sligo, districts not specified; and by Father Wolfe, Mac Cathmhaoil in Wicklow and parts of Connacht, the Ulster form before referred to, and in this case also, districts not specified. See Campbell.

Alphabetical Index of Anglicised Surnames in Ireland

See also Woulfe’s Irish Names and Surnames
and O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees