THE ROYAL HIBERNIAN ACADEMY

From A Dictionary of Irish Artists 1913

After the Society of Artists, formed in Dublin in 1764, had ceased to exist in 1780, the Irish Artists had no organization and held no exhibitions until 1800, when THE SOCIETY OF ARTISTS OF IRELAND was founded. This body held exhibitions for some years, but after 1812, through internal dissensions, it was split up into several short-lived societies, and from 1815 to 1819 exhibitions of the Dublin artists were held under the control of the Dublin Society in the Gallery in Hawkins Street. When the Society moved to Leinster House and gave up its premises in Hawkins Street, there was no place where exhibitions could be held. The Irish artists then considered the question of forming a permanent organization free from outside control, and over thirty artists joined in an application to the Government for a Charter of Incorporation. The application encountered the hostility of a small body of opponents, headed by John Comerford, the miniature painter, who always objected to any organization of his profession, and especially to any institution or academy for the teaching of art. He addressed a long and elaborate letter to the Chief Secretary, Sir Robert Peel; but the committee of the artists were able to refute his arguments, and, although further attempts were made to influence the Government, the artists, after ten years long and severe struggle in which they had the support of the Royal Irish Institution and the influence in England of Sir Thomas Lawrence and Martin Archer Shee, finally succeeded in their efforts and were granted a Charter of Incorporation. This was in 1821; but the completion of the Charter was delayed for some time by the want of funds to pay the fees upon it. The Royal Irish Institution came forward and paid the whole sum required, amounting to over £300, and a Royal Charter, bearing date the 5th August, 1823, was signed, by which was founded the Royal Hibernian Academy of Painters, Sculptors, Architects and Engravers.

Under the terms of the Charter the Academy was to consist of fourteen Members and ten Associates, and the names of the first Members were included in the deed: William Ashford, painter, President; Francis Johnston, architect, Treasurer; William Mossop, medallist, Secretary; Martin Cregan, William Cuming, John George Mulvany, Thomas James Mulvany, Joseph Peacock, Thomas Sautelle Roberts, Thomas Clement Thompson, Robert Lucius West, and Solomon Williams, painters; Thomas Kirk, sculptor, and Henry Aaron Baker, architect. These members were selected by the artists themselves. At a public meeting, to which every person recognized as an artist had been publicly invited, held in 1820, they chose three of their number to select those artists who should be considered suitable for membership of the Academy. The artists to whom the selection was confided were: William Ashford, William Cuming and Thomas Sautelle Roberts. Among those chosen was James Gandon, the architect, but he found himself unable, from his advanced age, to take part in the work of the Academy, and resigned before the completion of the Charter, and his place was filled by Henry Aaron Baker, architect. But although not named in the Charter Gandon appears to have been considered a member, as in the catalogue of 1826 he is referred to as having "been forced by ill-health to resign his situation as an Academician."

The deed further provided that within six months the Members should proceed to the election of ten Associates. The early minutes of the Academy are missing, so that the dates of the election of the first Associates are not on record; but it appears that the first election was in 1824, when only five Associates were chosen: Henry Kirchhoffer, Richard Rothwell, J. J. Russell, John Smyth, sculptor, and John Williamson, architect. In 1825 Thomas Foster and J. Haverty were added; and in 1826 Thomas Cooley, J. R. Maguire, George Petrie and George Papworth, architect. As the list of Associates were not completed to the full number of ten for some few years, there was apparently a difficulty in finding suitable candidates.

Having obtained their Charter the artists found themselves unable for want of funds to carry out the object for which their academy was formed; and no place could be found suitable for the holding of their exhibitions. This difficulty was removed by the generosity of one of their members, Francis Johnston, who had succeeded Ashford in the Presidency in 1824. He came forward and, at his own expense, built an Academy House in Abbey Street, containing exhibition-rooms, drawing-schools, a Council-room and apartments for the Keeper. He expended £14,000 upon the building and bestowed it in perpetuity in trust for the Academy. The first stone was laid on 29th April, 1824; the building was completed in 1826, and in the spring of that year the Academicians opened their first exhibition. To this exhibition seventy artists and twenty-one amateurs contributed, and the number of works shown was 371 pictures, drawings and miniatures, and thirty-one pieces of sculpture. In a preliminary Address and Preface in the catalogue the members of the Academy remark: "Much has been said in melancholy despondence of the distresses of Ireland; much has been said in dishonest spirit of the incapacity of her artists; to those who grieved without exertion, and to those who exulted with affected triumph, they say naught but to look on the works which now surround them on the walls of the Academy"; and they conclude by saying: "They consider it their bounden duty to use every exertion which may conduce to the advancement of the Fine Arts and the dignity of the body; and they indulge in the hope that those Artists who may hereafter issue from under their care will in their turn endeavour to transmit the honour of their profession unsullied to posterity."

In 1830 a gallery for the Academy's collection of antique and modern sculpture, principally consisting of casts presented from time to time, was opened, the gift of Mrs. Anne Johnston, widow of Francis Johnston. In the catalogue of the sixth annual exhibition, held in 1831, the preface contains the following paragraph: "The Royal Hibernian Academy may, at least, claim the merit of concentrating the native talent of the country, and by affording to every Artist annually the opportunity of displaying his works, the young aspirant in the Arts has his enthusiasm and emulation excited, and his works by comparison with those of more experienced men are more likely to show him the course he must follow; while the more ripened practitioner is not allowed to relax in his efforts, but is induced to the constant and fullest exertion of his powers that might otherwise be allowed to rust in inactivity." In this year, 1831, Parliament voted a grant to the Academy of £300, which has been continued annually ever since. This is the Academy's sole financial support outside the income derived from exhibition entrance fees and the commissions on sales of pictures, and most of the grant is expended on the maintenance of a life school for students which, though not under the terms of the original Charter, was established by the Members in 1826, and is dependent upon the voluntary services of the members as visitors and teachers. The amount realized by commissions on sales of works of art exhibited in the Academy has varied considerably at different periods.

During the four years 1835 to 1838 the total amount of purchases at the exhibitions was only thirty shillings paid for two water-colour drawings; and the receipts for admissions amounted to £577 13s. 6d. After the Royal Irish Art Union was founded and a stimulus given to the purchase of pictures in the Academy, the amount for the four years, 1840 to 1843, rose to £2,944 10s. expended by the Union in prizes for its subscribers, and £1,227 10s. spent by private purchasers. The receipts by admissions during these years was £1,790 15s. According to a return furnished to the Committee of Inquiry, which sat in Dublin in 1906, the receipts from commissions on purchases averaged for the ten years, 1875 to 1884, £124 16s. per annum; in the next ten years, 1885 to 1894, the average was £64 16s. 3d., and during the ten years, 1895 to 1904, it fell to £38 13s. Within the last few years it has increased. Besides the Academy's resources as above noticed a sum of £940, which has since grown to £1,200, was received in 1871 from the trustees of the Albert Testimonial Fund, the interest of which was to be applied to the foundation of a scholarship or prizes to be called "The Prince Albert Scholarship or Prizes." For some years the "Albert Prize," generally of about £20, was awarded annually for the best figure or landscape painted by any Irish artist or student under 30 years of age, who was or had been a student in the Academy; but in 1898 it was decided that the amount given should in future be divided so as to form separate prizes for students at the end of each session.

In 1856 dissensions arose among the members of the Academy, who were divided into two parties: one sought to put the affairs of the Institution, which had fallen into an unsatisfactory condition financially, on a better footing, and to reform its management which had become lax; the other, consisting chiefly of the older members, opposed this. The leader in the endeavours for reform was Michael Angelo Hayes, who, after his election as Secretary in 1856, immediately set himself to work to re-organize the affairs of the Institution, and to bring about the proper observance of its rules and regulations, which had been persistently violated. By his efforts the Academy's debt was considerably reduced; but his reforms incurred the hostility of a section of the Academicians, and every effort was made to thwart them. When he, as Secretary, refused to recognize Petrie as a member of the Academy and to summon him to its meetings on the grounds that, under the rules, he had forfeited his membership by reason of his not exhibiting for two years, affairs reached a climax. At a meeting, held on 22nd December, 1856, a new Council was elected, and Cregan and Hayes were replaced as President and Secretary by Petrie and Mulrenin. Hayes and his party declined to recognize the validity of this meeting, and he refused to surrender the books and keys held by him as Secretary. In consequence he was, on the 18th April, 1857, expelled from the Academy. Hayes stated his case in letters to the newspapers, which were replied to by G. F. Mulvany, representing his opponents, a correspondence in which Hayes had decidedly the advantage.*

The intervention of the Lord Lieutenant and the Law Officers was sought to put an end to the schism; but they declined to express any opinion, recommending that the quarrel should be settled by the members themselves. With affairs in such confusion, with two Presidents and two Councils, no exhibition was held in 1857, but at a meeting held on 17th October, 1857, Petrie was elected President by the whole body, a temporary triumph for the opponents of Hayes and his friends. A Government inquiry was next held into the Academy's affairs, and a new Charter altering its constitution was proposed. Under this Charter, which was granted by letters patent dated 27th February, 1861, the membership of the Academy was increased from fourteen to thirty, leaving the number of Associates at ten, as it was under the old Charter. The appointments of President, Secretary and Treasurer, and the making of by-laws, etc., were to be subject to the approval of the Lord Lieutenant. Petrie took exception to some of the provisions of the proposed Charter, and found himself at variance in other respects with his brother Academicians; and on the acceptance of the terms of the Charter by the members he, on 21st January, 1859, resigned the Presidency. Catterson Smith was elected in his stead, and his name appeared as President in the new Charter. George F. Mulvany was appointed Treasurer and Bernard Mulrenin Secretary. Michael Angelo Hayes was brought back as a Member, and in the following October was again made Secretary. The new members added to make up the whole number of thirty were chosen by the Academy in December, 1860. The enlargement of the number of constituent members was subsequently found inconvenient; it was quite too large for all the artists to be drawn from Ireland, and the filling up of vacancies has been a constant difficulty ever since.

Under the terms of the Charter the Members of the Academy have power to make statutes and by-laws for the government and regulation of the Institution subject to the approval of the Lord Lieutenant. The by-laws which at present govern the procedure of the Academy were drawn up in 1903, and received the sanction of the Lord Lieutenant on 21st December of that year. Under these by-laws the President, Secretary, Treasurer, Keeper and Librarian, are elected annually from the constituent Members, and their duties are defined; all vacancies in the number of Members are filled by election from the body of Associates, and it is laid down that an exhibition of works of painting, sculpture, drawing, modelling and design in architecture shall be held annually, to which all Members and Associates are expected to contribute. The Schools are superintended by the Keeper, and visitors are appointed to attend the School of Painting and the living Model School. The works of the students are exhibited annually, when the medals and prizes awarded are distributed by the President at a full meeting of the Academicians, Honorary Academicians and Associates. It is to be observed that neither of the Charters specifically required the Academy to hold annual exhibitions of works of art or to conduct a life school and the state grant was paid over without any conditions. The statutes and by-laws, however, made under the Charter of 1861 and amended in 1903, provide for both these functions, and under the terms of Francis Johnston's gift of the site and building of the Academy it appears that if more than one year was allowed to lapse without holding an exhibition the premises were to revert to the donor's heirs.

As a result of the inquiry held in 1857, previous to the granting of the new Charter, Mr. Norman Macleod, the official sent over for the purpose, recommended that the Academy as a society for the exhibition of pictures was not entitled to any support from public funds, and that the school was unnecessary, as the one in connection with the Dublin Society was better fitted to carry on the work. No action was, however, taken on these recommendations; except that the payment of the grant by the Treasury was made subject to an annual inspection and report by the Science and Art Department, an arrangement which continued until the creation of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction in Ireland. Since then the annual inspection has been made by one of its officers. The teaching in the School is provided for by the annual election of four or more Academicians or Associates who act as Visitors. They attend the School for one week each in turn, and receive a small fee for doing so. Students are admitted free, on giving satisfactory proof of capacity to benefit by the instruction. Little is heard of the School in the early days of the Academy, and it does not appear to have exercised any appreciable influence in art teaching in Ireland until about the time that the Dublin Society's School was converted into a School of Design under South Kensington. This had apparently the effect of slightly increasing the number of students, and about the period of 1870 to 1890 a good number of artists received a portion of their training there, such as W. F. Osborne, J. M. Kavanagh, R. T. Moynan, H. Tisdall, Stein Cairnes, Henry Allan and Oliver Sheppard. In 1893 the School was for the first time in the history of the Academy opened to female students. The result has been that since then male students have practically ceased to attend. In the evidence given before the Committee of Inquiry in 1906, it was stated that an average of seventeen students had attended the School during the past five years, nearly all of whom were women, and that at the time the evidence was given only one or two male students attended occasionally. There is no limit to the period during which students can remain in the School, and the result is that year after year the prizes fall to those who have been attending the School for many years. A witness before the Committee, Mr. O'Sullivan, Art Inspector of the Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, stated that not one of the students, even those who had been there for five years, would satisfy the test for the admission to the Life School of the Royal Academy in London.

From the time of its foundation to the present day the Academy has struggled against adverse circumstances, partly from the neglect and apathy of the public and partly from the difficulty which was found in filling the ranks of the Academicians with artists who could paint. The history of art in Ireland—as can be seen from the account of artists given in the foregoing pages—shows that young artists of talent and ambition would not remain where there was no outlet for showing their powers, but emigrated to London. The Academy had often to elect as members of its body artists whose qualifications were of the smallest, and it is not surprising therefore that at some periods of its existence its exhibitions failed to enlist the support of the public. Of its exhibition held in 1838, perhaps about the worst period of its career, the "Evening Mail" had the following criticism: "The 13th Exhibition, save the mark, of the Royal Hibernian Academy is now open to a discerning public, and possesses at least this superiority over its predecessors that it exhibits fewer pictures, and, as a matter of course, fewer outrages upon good taste. We shall even go further and admit that it possesses three or four such pictures as would redeem even a greater farrago of mediocrity and positive dullness from utter execration, and these few leave us not without hope that the discipline of public opinion, fairly and freely expressed, may not only purge the gallery of the Academy from the dross which is suffered to usurp its walls, but also with fair encouragement from the wealthy, stimulate the genius of our countrymen to a patient and assiduous cultivation of the excellent in this fascinating art." In this year the Academy had found a difficulty in getting together an exhibition at all, and next year, 1839, no exhibition was held. In 1857 again, during the schism in the Academy, no exhibition was held, and none would have been held in 1858 but that from the provisions of the deed under which the Academy House was held, the premises would have reverted to Francis Johnston's heirs if two years elapsed without one.

The establishment of the Royal Irish Art Union in 1839 exercised a beneficial and stimulating influence upon the Dublin artists by the purchase of their works, and for some years the condition of the Academy was more flourishing. Tested by the number of admissions the patronage of the exhibitions by the public soon began again to fall off. In the ten years, 1874-1885, the average number of admissions was 28,480; in the succeeding decade it was 19,389, and in 1899 it had fallen to 9,709. The average recorded from 1894 to 1905 is only 7,967. With the diminishing attendance at the exhibitions the number of purchasers also grew less. Within the last few years, however, a revival of interest has taken place in the Academy; attendances and sales have increased, and signs are not wanting of a more assured and generous support of the institution by the public.

The Academy had for long claimed increased State support and for new premises nearer to the other art institutions on the south side of the city, and in 1902 brought its case, unsuccessfully, before the Committee on the Public Offices Sites Bill. In 1903, following a motion in Parliament by Mr. J. J. Mooney, M.P., the Government appointed a Committee to inquire into the work carried on by the Royal Hibernian Academy and the Metropolitan School of Art, and to report whether any, and if so, what measures should be taken to make these Institutions serve more effectually those purposes for which they are maintained. The Committee, which consisted of Lord Windsor (afterwards Earl of Plymouth), as Chairman, the Earl of Westmeath, Mr. Justice Madden, Mr. George C. V. Holmes, Chairman of the Commissioners of the Board of Works, and Mr. J. P. Boland, M.P., sat for four days in Dublin and one in London in 1905, and took the evidence of nineteen witnesses. It made its Report, or rather two Reports, in November, 1906. The Report of the majority, consisting of the Chairman and Lord Westmeath and Mr. Holmes, was not favourable to the Academy. It recommended a new Charter to remedy the defects in the constitution of the Academy and the abolition of its life school, which should in future be carried on in the Metropolitan School. It did not consider that a sufficient case had been made out for the abandonment of the building in Abbey Street. The recommendations of this Report meant the extinction of the Academy as a teaching body. The signatories seem to have failed to grasp the distinctive character of an Academy of Art and the essential difference between a school of fine art and a school of applied art. The minority Report took a broader and more sympathetic view, and strongly expressed the opinion that the Academy and its School should not only be maintained, but fostered and encouraged; and was also in favour of the transfer of the Academy's premises to a better site. The result of the inquiry, so far as the Academy was concerned, was that no change was made and no further action taken. The Academicians themselves began an agitation for the recommendations of the minority Report to be carried out, but the matter was ultimately allowed to drop.

Whatever may have been the shortcomings of the Academy either as a Society of Artists or a teaching school, it must be recognized by everyone interested in the fostering of art in Ireland that its extinction would be a calamity. The maintenance of an efficient Academy is absolutely necessary if there is to be any real teaching of art in Ireland. Its school, instead of being crippled and starved by an inadequate grant, ought to be allowed an endowment to enable it to be efficient, and to afford students who aspire to become artists every advantage for the development of their artistic talent.

Besides the regular annual exhibitions the Academy held a Loan Exhibition in December, 1902, projected by Sir Hugh Lane. In this one hundred and thirty-six works of deceased English and Irish painters were exhibited, collected mostly from Irish owners. Another exhibition was opened in December, 1903, consisting chiefly of works by the late Walter Osborne and Catterson Smith, P.R.H.A.; and an exhibition of the works of G. F. Watts was held in 1905. In 1910 an extraordinarily fine collection of engravings was got together and exhibited on the Academy walls. The finest examples of every variety of the engraver's art were lent by prominent collectors, chiefly in England, and the exhibition, especially in the section devoted to the work of the early German artists, was a remarkable one, and could hardly be surpassed. But it was not appreciated by the public, and comparatively few visited it; and the result of the labour and expense which it entailed was disappointing and disheartening to the President and those who assisted him in its formation.

A list of the Members and Associates of the Academy from its foundation to the present time is given below.

ROYAL HIBERNIAN ACADEMY

[The letters in brackets after the names signify : (A) Architect; (M) Medallist; (S) Sculptor.]

Presidents.

William Ashford. 1823-1824.

Francis Johnston. 1824-1829.

William Cuming. 1829-1832.

Martin Cregan. 1832-1857.

George Petrie 1857-1859.

Catterson Smith. 1859-1866.

Sir Thomas Deane. 1866-1868.

Catterson Smith. 1868-1869.

Sir T. A. Jones. 1869-1893.

Sir Thomas Farrell. 1893-1900.

Sir Thomas Drew. 1900-1910.

Dermod O'Brien. 1910-

Members and Associates.

Aitken, James Alfred. Associate, 1st March, 1871. Resigned 1890. Died 1897.

Allan, Henry. Associate, 18th April, 1895. Member, 18th Jan., 1901. Died 1912.

Ashford, William. Original Member, 1823. President, 1823. Died 1824.

Ashlin, George C. (A). Associate, 18th Jan., 1879. Member, 10th June, 1885.

Atkinson, George. Associate, 18th April, 1912.

Baker, Henry Aaron. (A). Original Member, 1823. Resigned and made Honorary Member, 26th April, 1831. Died 1836.

Batchelor, Frederick. (A). Associate, 1st Nov., 1901.

Bradford, Louis King. Associate, 1855. Died 1862.

Braithwaite, Charles. Associate, 18th Oct., 1913.

Brenan, James. Associate, 1 8th July, 1876. Member, 13th April, 1878. Died 1907.

Brenan, James Butler. Associate, 18th July, 1861. Member, 4th April, 1871. Died 1889.

Bridgford, Thomas. Associate, 24th Oct., 1832. Member, 23rd Aug., 1851. Died 1878.

Brocas, William. Associate, 13th Oct., 1854. Member, 1860. Died 1868.

Brooke, William Henry. Associate, 22nd May, 1828. Died 1860.

Brown, Nassau Blair. Associate, 7th Nov., 1901. Member, 19th Oct., 1903.

Burke, Augustus Nicholas. Associate, 18th July, 1871. Member, 26th Aug., 1871. Died 1891.

Burton, Sir Frederick William. Associate, 27th May, 1837. Member, 1st Feb., 1839. Died 1900.

Butler, John Stirling (A). Associate, 27th May, 1865. Member, 22nd June, 1869. Name removed from list 25th April, 1883, for noncompliance with rules.

Byrne, Patrick (A). Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1864.

Close, Samuel P. (A). Associate, 19th Oct., 1891.

Collier, William Henry. Associate, 22nd Oct., 1836. Member, 18th Oct., 1837. Died 1847.

Cooley, Thomas. Associate, 18th July, 1826. Resigned 1829. Died 1872.

Cregan, Martin. Original Member, 1823. President, 24th Oct., 1832. Not re-elected 17th Oct., 1857. Died 1870.

Crowley, Nicholas Joseph. Associate, 18th Jan., 1836. Member, 27th May, 1837. Resigned 7th March, 1854. Honorary Member, 23rd Oct., 1854. Died 1857.

Cuming, William. Original Member, 1823. President, 2nd April, 1829. Resigned Presidency, Oct., 1832. Resigned Membership, 31st Jan., 1837. Honorary Member, 20th Feb., 1837. Died 1852.

Danby, Thomas. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1886.

Deane, Sir Thomas (A). Member, 1860, under new Charter. President, 18th Oct., 1866, to 17th Oct., 1868. Died 1871.

Deane, Sir Thomas Newenham (A). Associate, 18th July, 1861. Member, 18th April, 1864. Died 1899.

Deane, Sir Thomas Manly (A). Associate, 18th April, 1898. Member, 18th Oct., 1910.

Derrick, J. McDuff (A). Associate, 13th Oct., 1854. (His name disappears from list after 1857).

Dillon, William. Associate, 18th July, 1861. Removed 22nd Nov., 1870,

Doyle, Henry Edward. Associate, 18th April, 1872. Member, 22nd Nov., 1874. Died 1892.

Doyle, William F. Associate, 13th Nov., 1869. Died 1891.

Drew, Sir Thomas (A). Associate, 13th Nov., 1870. Member, 21st April, 1871. President, 18th Oct., 1900. Died 1910.

Duffy, Patrick Vincent. Associate, 18th April, 1860. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1909.

Farrell, James (S). Associate, 17th April, 1880. Member, 18th Nov., 1882. Died 1891.

Farrell, Terence (S). Associate, 17th July, 1851. Member, 25th May, 1859. Died 1876.

Farrell, Sir Thomas (S). Member, 1860, under new Charter. President, 18th Oct., 1893. Died 1900.

Faulkner, John. Associate, 18th July, 1861. Member, 7th. Sept., 1861. Resigned, 22nd Nov., 1870. Died (?).

Fitzpatrick, Edmond. Associate, 18th Jan., 1862. Removed 25th April, 1883, for non-observance of by-laws.

Foley, John Henry (S). Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1874.

Foster, Thomas. Associate, 1825. Died 1826.

Fowler, Thomas Trevor. Associate, 22nd Oct., 1836. Died (?).

Frazer, Hugh. Associate, 10th May, 1830. Member, 27th May, 1837. Resigned, 5th July, 1861. Died (?).

Gandon, James (A). He was among those chosen as an original Member; but owing to his advanced age he found himself unable to accept, and his name was not included in the Charter of 1823.

Grey, Alfred. Associate, 14th Sept., 1869. Member, 16th Aug., 1870.

Grey, Charles. Associate, 1st June, 1838. Member, 1st Dec., 1845. Died 1892.

Grey, James. Associate, 20th March, 1875. Member, 18th Oct., 1875. Died 1905.

Haverty, Joseph P. Associate, 1824. Member, 6th May, 1829. Resigned, 18th Oct., 1837. Died 1864.

Hayes, Edward. Associate, 18th March, 1856. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1868.

Hayes, Edwin. Associate, 9th April, 1852. Member, 1861. Died 1904.

Hayes, Michael Angelo. Associate, 9th April, 1853. Member, 13th Oct., 1854. Expelled, 8th April, 1857. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Resigned, Dec., 1874. Died 1877.

Hill, Nathaniel. Associate, 27th May, 1892. Member, 11th April, 1894.

Hone, Nathaniel. Associate, 18th Oct., 1879. Member, 17th Jan., 1880.

Hughes, John (S). Associate, 18th Oct., 1895. Member, 27th April, 1900.

Inglis, Johnston J. Associate, 27th May, 1892. Member, 18th July, 1892. Name removed from list 2nd Sept., 1912.

Johnston, Francis (A). Original Member, 1823. President, 1824. Died 1829.

Jones, Sir Thomas A. Associate, 16th Jan., 1860. Member, 1860, under new Charter. President, 22nd June, 1869. Died 1893.

Joy, Albert Bruce (S). Associate, 18th April, 1890. Member, 26th Feb., 1892.

Joy, Arthur. Associate, 18th Jan., 1836. Member, 20th Feb., 1837. Died 1838.

Kavanagh, Joseph M. Associate, 18th April, 1889. Member, 26th Feb., 1892.

Kelly, Gerald Festus. Associate, 19th Oct., 1908. Member, 18th Oct., 1910.

Kendrick, Matthew. Associate, 24th Oct., 1832. Member, 16th Feb., 1850. Died 1874.

Kennedy, Charles Napier. Associate, 18th July, 1896. Died 1898.

Kirchhoffer, Henry. Associate, 1824. Member, 9th May, 1826. Resigned, 25th Mar., 1835. Died 1860.

Kirk, Joseph Robinson (S). Associate, 22nd May, 1845. Member, 13th Oct., 1854. Died 1894.

Kirk, William Boyton (S). Associate, 16th Feb., 1850. Resigned and made Honorary Member, 18th Oct., 1873. Died 1900.

Kirk, Thomas (S). Original Member, 1823. Died 1845.

Lanyon, Sir Charles (A). Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1889.

Lavery, John. Associate, 18th July, 1906. Member, 18th Jan., 1907.

Lawlor, John (S). Associate, 18th July, 1861. Died 1901.

Leech, W. J. Associate, 18th April, 1907. Member, 18th Oct., 1910.

Lover, Samuel. Associate, 22nd May, 1828. Member, 6th May, 1829. Resigned, 15th Mar., 1836. Honorary, 15th Mar., 1836. Died 1868.

Lynn, Samuel Ferris (S). Associate, 18th Oct., 1872. Died 1876.

Lynn, William H. (A). Associate, 27th May, 1865. Member, 18th July, 1872.

Lyon, Edwin (S). Associate, 18th Jan., 1836. (He never exhibited, and his name disappears from list after 1836. No information in Academy records as to why he was elected, or when, or how he ceased to be an Associate.)

McCarthy, John James (A). Associate, 17th July, 1851. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1882.

Maclise, Daniel. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Resigned 9th May, 1864. Honorary, Sept., 1864. Died 1870.

McGuinness, William Bingham. Associate, 18th July, 1882. Member, 18th Jan., 1884.

McIlwaine, J. B. S. Associate, 18th July, 1893. Member, 18th July, 1911.

MacManus, Henry. Associate, 1st June, 1838. Member, 9th Dec., 1857. Died 1878.

Maguire, James Robert. Associate, 9th May, 1826. Resigned 24th April, 1830. Died (?) 1850.

Mahoney, James. Associate, 1856. Resigned, 1859. Died 1879.

Marquis, J. Richard. Associate, 18th July, 1861. Member, 7th Sept., 1861. Died (?) 1886.

Mayne, Arthur Jocelyn. Associate, 22nd Nov., 1870. Member, 25th Jan., 1873. Died 1893.

Miller, Phillip Homan. Associate, 18th April, 1890.

Mills, Charles. Associate, 18th Oct., 1913.

Mitchell, William Mansfield (A). Associate, 18th April, 1889. Member, 18th Jan., 1890. Died 1910.

Moore, Christopher (S). Associate, 26th May, 1846. Member, 26th May, 1846. Resigned, 24th Oct., 1853. Honorary, 13th Oct., 1854. Died 1863.

Mossop, William Stephen (M). Original Member, 1823. Died 1827.

Moynan, Richard Thomas. Associate, 18th Oct., 1889. Member, 18th July, 1890. Died 1906.

Mulcahy, Jeremiah Hodges. Associate, 1875. Resigned, 1888. Died 1889.

Mulrenin, Bernard. Associate, 27th May, 1837. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1868.

Mulvany, George F. Associate, 5th May, 1830. Member, 17th Nov., 1836. Died 1869.

Mulvany, John George. Original Member, 1823. Died 1839.

Mulvany, John Skipton (A). Associate, 16th Feb., 1850. Member, 13th Oct., 1854. Died 1870.

Mulvany, Thomas James. Original Member, 1823. Died 1845.

Murphy, Edward Henry. Associate, 3rd Nov., 1829. Died 1841.

Murray, Albert E. (A). Associate, 18th April, 1893. Member, 18th April, 1910.

Murray, William (A). Associate, 3rd Nov., 1829. Died 1849.

Murray, William George (A). Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1871.

Nairn, George. Associate, 22nd May, 1828. Died 1850.

Nicholl, Andrew. Associate, 27th May, 1837. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1886.

Nicholls, Charles Wynne. Associate, 18th July, 1861. Member, 22nd June, 1869. Died 1903.

O'Brien, Dermod. Associate, 18th July, 1905. Member, 18th April, 1907. President, 21st May, 1910.

O'Connor, John. Associate, 18th Oct., 1883. Died 1889.

O'Donohoe, Francis Joseph. Associate, 27th April, 1912. Died 1912.

O'Neill, Henry. Associate, 27th May, 1837. Resigned 8th Jan., 1844. Died 1880.

O'Reilly, Joseph. Associate, 18th Oct., 1892. Died 1893.

Orpen, Richard Caulfield (A). Associate, 27th April, 1911. Member, 18th Jan., 1912.

Orpen, William. Associate, 18th July, 1904. Member, 28th Oct., 1907.

Osborne, Walter. Associate, 19th Feb., 1883. Member, 18th Oct., 1886. Died 1903.

Osborne, William. Associate, 13th Oct., 1854. Member, 6th July, 1868. Died 1901.

Owen, James Higgins (A). Associate, 23rd May, 1873. Member, 18th Oct., 1876. Died 1891.

Panormo, Constantine (S). Associate, 9th May, 1842. Died 1852.

Papworth, George (A). Associate, 18th July, 1826. Member, 18th Oct., 1831. Died 1855.

Papworth, John Thomas (A). Associate, 18th Jan., 1836. Died 1841.

Peacock, Joseph. Original Member, 1823. Died 1837.

Penrose, J. Doyle. Associate, 15th April, 1901. Member, 18th Oct., 1904.

Pentland, J. Howard (A). Associate, 18th July, 1894. Member, 18th Jan., 1895.

Petrie, George. Associate, 9th May, 1826. Member, 12th May, 1828. President, 17th Oct., 1857. Resigned membership, 7th Feb., 1859. Honorary, 21st Feb., 1859. Died 1866.

Power, Albert G. Associate, 18th Oct., 1911.

Prittie, Edward. Associate, 2nd May, 1877. Died 1882.

Roberts, Thomas Sautelle. Original Member, 1823. Died 1826.

Robinson, John Loftus (A). Associate, 10th Jan., 1886. Member, 18th July, 1892. Died 1894.

Rogers, James E. Associate, 4th Dec., 1871. Died 1896.

Rothwell, Richard. Associate, 1824. Member, 8th July, 1826. Resigned 28th Feb., 1837. Associate and Member again, 1st Dec,, 1847. Resigned, 1st Feb., 1854. Honorary, 13th Oct., 1854. Died 1868.

Russell, Charles. Associate, 8th June, 1891. Member, 18th Jan., 1893. Died 1910.

Russell, James John. Associate, 1824. Member, 9th May, 1826. Died 1827.

Scott, W. A. (A). Associate, 18th April, 1910.

Scully, Harry. Associate, 18th Oct., 1900. Member, 18th Jan., 1906.

Shannon, James Jebusa. Associate, 18th Jan., 1907.

Sharp, George. Associate, 9th May, 1832. Member, 1860, under new Charter. Died 1877.

Sheppard, Oliver (S). Associate, 18th July, 1898. Member, 18th July, 1901.

Sheil, Edward. Associate, 30th Dec., 1861. Member, 13th Nov., 1864. Died 1869.

Shore, R. S. Associate, 18th Jan., 1894. Member, 18th July, 1895.

Smith, Stephen Catterson. Associate, 11th May, 1844. Member, 13th Sept., 1844. President, 7th March, 1859, to Oct., 1866; and again 17th Oct., 1868. Resigned 28th March, 1869. Died 1872.

Smith, Stephen Catterson, Jun. Associate, 18th Mar., 1876. Member, 20th April, 1879. Died 1912.

Smyth, John (S). Associate, 1824. (Having forfeited his place through accidental non-compliance with rules, was re-elected 5th May, 1830.) Died 1840.

Sweetman, Thomas H. Associate, 22nd May, 1828. Resigned 18th Feb., 1831.

Thaddeus, Henry Jones. Associate, 18th Oct., 1892. Member, 18th July, 1901.

Thompson, Thomas Clement. Original Member, 1823. Resigned and made Honorary, 1856. Died 1857.

Tisdall, H. C. Associate, 27th May, 1892. Member, 18th Oct., 1893.

Walker, Francis S. Associate, 11th July, 1878. Member, 18th Oct., 1879.

Watkins, Bartholomew Colles. Associate, 10th July, 1861. Member, 22nd Sept., 1864. Died 1891.

Watkins, Joseph (S). Associate, 17th Oct., 1868. Member, 26th May, 1869. Died 1871.

West, Robert Lucius. Original Member, 1823. Died 1850.

Williams, Alexander. Associate, 18th April, 1884. Member, 18th July, 1891.

Williams, Solomon. Original Member, 1823. Died 1824.

Williamson, John (A). Associate, 1824. Resigned, 3rd Nov., 1829. Died (?) 1831.

Wingfield, Hon. Lewis Strange. Associate, 18th July, 1871. Member, 16th Jan., 1872. Died 1891.

Woodhouse, John (M). Associate, 16th Mar., 1863. Died 1892.

Yeats, John Butler. Associate, 18th Jan., 1887. Member, 26th Feb., 1892.

Honorary Members.

Painters, Sculptors, Architects and Amateurs. [Those marked * had been previously Members or Associates.]

Sir Thomas Lawrence.

1826-1829.

Sir Martin Archer Shee.

1826-1850.

Richard Westmacott.

1827-1843, 1850-1858.

Charles Rossi.

1827-1837.

Andrew Robertson.

1827-1842.

*Henry Aaron Baker.

1831-1836.

*Samuel Lover.

1836-1866.

* William Cuming.

1837-1851.

* Richard Rothwell.

1854-1868.

*Nicholas J. Crowley.

1854-1856.

*Christopher Moore.

1854-1863.

Major-General G. Colomb.

1854-1874.

*Thomas Clement Thompson.

1856-1857.

* George Petrie.

1859-1865.

William Mulready.

1860-1863.

*Daniel Maclise.

1864-1870.

Colonel P. Meadows Taylor.

1866-1876.

James Moore, M.D.

1868-1883.

Admiral R. B. Beechey.

1868-1895.

Sir John Leslie, Bart.

1872-

Sir George Hodson, Bart.

1871-1888.

Viscount Powerscourt, K.P.

1870-1894.

Alfred Elmore.

1878-1881.

Margaret Allen.

1878-

Sir Frederick Leighton.

1879-1896.

Sarah Purser.

1890-

W. Booth Pearsall.

1891-

Sir Walter Armstrong.

1894-

Sir Edward Poynter.

1898-

Sir John Millais.

1896-1896.

Kathleen Shaw.

1900-

Sir George Reid.

1901-

Sir James Guthrie.

1903-

Professors of History.

Paul Twigge.

1826-1835.

John McCaul.

1836 1837.

Rev. Edward Johnston.

1838-1860.

George Petrie.

1863-1865.

Sir John T. Gilbert.

1866-1876.

W. J. Fitzpatrick.

1 877-1880.

Edward Dowden.

1881-1882.

W. J. Fitzpatrick.

1882-1895.

Edward H. Lecky.

1896-1903.

Professors of Antiquities and Archaeology.

E. N. Wright.

1827-1834.

Rev. Edward Johnston.

1838-1860.

George Petrie.

1863-1865.

Sir J. T. Gilbert.

1868-1876.

W. J. Fitzpatrick.

1877-1880.

Sir J. T. Gilbert.

1880-1898.

George Coffey.

1899-

Professors of Anatomy.

Andrew Johnston.

1826-1833.

James Macartney.

1834-1842.

Michael Harry Stapleton.

1844-1873.

Sir Charles A. Cameron.

1873-1874.

Sir W. Thornley Stoker.

1875-1912.

Oliver Gogarty.

1912-

Professor of Chemistry.

Sir Charles A. Cameron.

1874-

Professor of Mathematics.

Francis Sadleir, D.D.

1827-1851.

Legal Advisers.

Edward Houghton.

1827-1833.

George Cash.

1836-1850.

Joseph Huband Smith.

1852-1871.

Sergeant Armstrong.

1875-1880.

James Murphy, Q.C.

1881-1883.

Henry A. Johnston.

1884-

NOTE: * See note, Vol. I, p. 462.

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