Annotated Bibliography of Ulster-Scots Language and Literature

John G. W. Erskine and Michael Montgomery

This bibliography identifies and comments briefly on published scholarly and popular writings on Ulster-Scots. Most items deal with either Ulster-Scots as a language variety or closely related issues pertaining to Ulster English. With regard to language we have endeavoured to be as comprehensive as possible, recognizing that much of the literature is little known, even in Northern Ireland, and that this bibliography can make it accessible for the first time. Items on Scots produced in Scotland, such as dictionaries and linguistic atlases, are included when they contain material from Ulster. However, with the exception of one or two lexicographical works, general works on Scots are excluded.

Items about writers in Ulster-Scots or their work (usually poetry) are also included, but published original writing in Ulster-Scots is so voluminous (especially in recent years, with the advent of Ullans, the annual magazine of the Ulster-Scots Language Society) that this can, and should, be documented fully in a separate bibliography. This compilation can include only major works, such as collections of the Rhyming Weavers (especially those with a modern critical introduction), and recent critical or biographical works about these writers. An extensive list of poetry and fiction through 1900 that contain Ulster-Scots or Ulster English can be found in J. R. R. Adams' 'A Preliminary Checklist of Works Containing Ulster Dialect, 1700-1900' (see below).

Internet documents and databases on Ulster-Scots are included when their author is known or they are deemed particularly valuable. However, such sources are often transient and anonymous and draw largely on published sources included here. Because they are proliferating rapidly and can be found with a typical internet search engine, this compilation does not generally attempt to cite them.

Adair, Mark, 'Boundaries, Diversity and Inter-culturalism: The Case of Ulster-Scots', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language and Politics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2000), 143-147. Argues that Ulster-Scots should be recognised as part of the 'diverse and shared future' of Northern Ireland and that the influence of Ulster-Scots tradition on and from other traditions be acknowledged.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'The Dialects of Ulster', in Diarmaid Ó Muirithe (ed.), The English Language in Ireland (Dublin, Mercier, 1977), 56-70, map. Introduction to the subject, with features and examples; shows how settlement history of English and Scots produced modern dialects.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Glossary of Lower Bann Fishery Terms' in N. C. Mitchel, 'The Lower Bann Fisheries', Ulster Folklife 11 (1965), 30-32. Glossary of 22 terms, including some of Scottish derivation (Mitchel's article appears in the same issue).

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Language and Man in Ireland', Ulster Folklife 15/16 (1970), 140-171, maps. Reprinted in Michael Barry and Philip Tilling (eds.), The English Dialects of Ulster: An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech by G. B. Adams (Holywood, Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 1986), 1-32. Traces the languages and linguistic influences of settlers in Ireland from the mesolithic age to the 18th century and argues that 'north of a line from Drogheda to Bundoran, Ulster is linguistically a zone of transition from Scotland to the rest of Ireland' for both Scots and Gaelic.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Materials for a Language Map of 17th Century Ireland', Ulster Dialect Archives Bulletin 4 (1965), 15-30. Summarises Petty's 1659 Census of Ireland and discusses problems of interpreting it for language groups; notes that English and Scottish residents were distinguished for many Ulster baronies.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Northern England as a Source of Ulster Dialects', Ulster Folklife 13 (1967), 69-74. Reprinted in Michael Barry and Philip Tilling (eds.), The English Dialects of Ulster: An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech by G. B. Adams (Holywood, Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 1986), 33-36. Review article of Eduard Kolb, Linguistic Atlas of England: Phonological Atlas of the Northern Region; adduces positive and negative evidence for influence from northern England, by both northern and southern routes, on Ulster dialect, and argues that some phonological features of Ulster-Scots and Ulster English came from northern England at least in part.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Patterns of Word Distribution', Ulster Folklife 2 (1956), 6-13. Uses distribution maps for variant terms for four items (earwig, one, heifer and up/down to Belfast/Dublin) to show existence of a 'Northeastern Crescent' dialect sub-region that is explained in part by Scottish settlement in the 17th century.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Phonological Notes on the English of South Donegal', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 53C4 (1950), 299-310. Reprinted in Michael Barry and Philip Tilling (eds.), The English Dialects of Ulster: An Anthology of Articles on Ulster Speech by G. B. Adams (Holywood, Ulster Folk and Transport Museum, 1986), 97-104. Notes that the Scottish Vowel Length Rule, whereby vowels are long only at the end of a word, before [r] and before voiced fricative consonants, is preserved in the English of South Donegal, although this has been overlaid by later phonological developments.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'The Phonology of the Antrim Dialect: Historical Introduction with Special Reference to the Problem of Vowel Length', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 57C3 (1956), 69-152. Detailed phonological study of county Antrim speech.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'A Register of Phonological Research on Ulster Dialects' in G. Brendan Adams (ed.), Ulster Dialects: an Introductory Symposium (Holywood, Ulster Folk Museum, 1964), 193-201. Annotated list of published and unpublished research on pronunciation for the nine counties of Ulster as well as Counties Louth and Leitrim.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Report on Dialect Work in Ulster', Scottish Language 1 (1982), 6-12. Concise chronological survey and assessment of a century of research.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Shakespeare in Cullybackey', Ulster Folklife 17 (1971), 97-98. Rendering of 'All the World's a Stage' soliloquy from As You Like It into the dialect of Craigs, near Cullybackey, county Antrim, as recorded by John Wright.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Shakespeare in Kilwaughter', Ulster Folklife 19 (1973), 77-78. Rendering of 'All the World's a Stage' soliloquy from As You Like It into the dialect of Kilwaughter, county Antrim, recorded by John Clifford.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'The Study of Ulster Dialects, 1860 to the Present Day' in Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland 1 (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1981), 5-17. History and narrative bibliography of principal dialect work in Ulster, 1860-1980, including on Ulster-Scots.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Ulster Dialect Origins', Ulster Folklife 17 (1971), 99-102, maps. Presents and discusses maps of Ulster showing the presumed areas of origin in Britain and settlement of 17th-century English planters and areas of Irish and Scottish settlement and speech.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'Ulster Dialects', in Belfast in Its Regional Setting: a Scientific Survey (Belfast, British Association, 1952), 195-200, map. Reprinted as 'Introduction: Ulster Dialects', in G. Brendan Adams (ed.), Ulster Dialects: an Introductory Symposium (Holywood, Ulster Folk Museum, 1964), 1-4, map. Concise introduction to the two primary constituents of Ulster dialect (Ulster-Scots and Mid-Ulster English) and the regional standard found in urban areas that usually results from a blending of the two.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'The Ulster "egh" Sound', Ulster Folk and Transport Museum Yearbook (1974/75), 10-11. Examines the classes of words and names in which the velar fricative /x/ is maintained in modern Ulster speech.

Adams, G. Brendan, 'The Voiceless Velar Fricative in Northern Hiberno-English', in Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland 1 (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1980), 106-117, maps. On the origin (frequently Scots), use and loss of the consonant phoneme /x/ as in licht; includes distribution maps.

Adams, J. R. R., 'Jack Stewart, Jamie Boyd — and Friends: Subscribers to Ulster-Scots Poetry, 1793-1824, a Name Survey', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1 (1993), 26-27. Categorises and analyses names of people who took out subscriptions to finance the publication of volumes by rural Ulster-Scots poets in the late 18th and early 19th century.

Adams, J. R. R., 'A Preliminary Checklist of Works Containing Ulster Dialect, 1700-1900', Linen Hall Review 6, 3 (1989), 10-12. A list of works, chiefly literary, containing or commenting on Ulster dialect; includes, but does not specifically identify, Ulster-Scots items.

Adams, J. R. R., The Printed Word and the Common Man: Popular Culture in Ulster, 1700-1900 (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1987), vii + 218 pp. Seminal work on publishing, reading habits, education and literacy in 18th- and 19th-century Ulster; provides an informative background for study of these aspects of the Ulster-Scots community.

Adams, J. R. R., 'Reading Societies in Ulster', Ulster Folklife 26 (1980), 55-64. Overview of 18th-century clubs that purchased books for members to borrow and often discuss and debate; many of these societies were in Ulster-Scots areas.

Adams, J. R. R., 'A Rural Bard, His Printers and His Public: Robert Huddleston of Moneyrea', Linen Hall Review 9, 3/4 (Winter 1992), 9-11. Based on material in the Huddleston Archive at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

Adams, J. R. R., '"Scotch Poems" from East Donegal in 1753', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1 (1993), 24-25. Reprints and discusses one poem in Scots written in the Laggan area of east Donegal and published in the early anthology Ulster Miscellany.

Adams, Jack (ed.), Bab McKeen: The Wit and Wisdom of an Ulster Scot (Ballymena, Mid-Antrim Ulster-Scots Society, 2002), ii + 106 pp. A compilation of three decades of newspaper columns from the Ballymena Observer from the late 19th and early 20th century, with a 'Forethocht' by Philip Robinson.

Adamson, Ian, 'The Language of Ulster' in his The Identity of Ulster: the Land, the Language and the People (Bangor, Pretani, 1982), 73-81, map. Surveys two millennia of linguistic history of the province, focusing on the affinities of Ulster Gaelic and 'Ulster Lallans' to other varieties; argues that concerted action should be taken for the preservation of both along the lines of the Fryske Akademy for Frisian in the Netherlands.

Akenson, Donald Harman, 'Listening to Rural Language: Ballycarry Co. Antrim, 1798-1817', in Donald H. Akenson (ed.), Canadian Papers in Rural History (Ganacoque, Langdale, 1980), 155-172. Argues that the verse of Ulster-Scots folk poets such as James Orr offers a museum of Ulster speech of an earlier day.

Akenson, Donald Harman, and W. H. Crawford, Local Poets and Social History: James Orr, Bard of Ballycarry (Belfast, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, 1977), viii + 130 pp. Reproduces and examines selected poems from Orr and contemporary documents and discusses their social background; glossary, pp. 122-124.

'Animals and Insects', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 2 (1994), 14-17. A glossary of ninety terms for insects and domestic and farm animals.

Avery, Hilary, 'Ulster Scots in Education in Northern Ireland', in Dónall Ó Riagáin (ed.), Language and Law in Northern Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 9), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 65-77. Outlines background, rationale and methodology of the Ulster-Scots Primary School Project to develop materials on Ulster-Scots language, history and culture and provides samples of its materials.

Baraniuk, Carol, 'James Orr: Ulster-Scot and Poet of the 1798 Rebellion', Scottish Studies Review 6:1 (May/June 2005), 22-32.

Barnes, Elspeth, Will McAvoy and Philip Robinson, 'More Place Names around Greyabbey', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 2 (1994), 25-27. Supplements McAvoy et al, 'Some Field Names in the Greyabbey District', by identifying local names for roads, townlands, etc. and their origins.

Barry, Michael V., 'The English Language in Ireland', in Richard W. Bailey and Manfred Gorlach (eds.), English around the World (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1982), 84-133. Includes a summary (pp. 110-15) of Ulster-Scots pronunciation, based on the work of Gregg.

Barry, Michael V., 'Historical Introduction to the Dialects of Ulster', in C. I. Macafee (ed.), Concise Ulster Dictionary (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996), ix-xii. Chronicles the coming of English and Scots to Ireland and how they contributed to the present-day dialect diversity of Ulster.

Barry, Michael V., 'The Southern Boundaries of Northern Hiberno-English Speech', in Aspects of English Dialects in Ireland 1 (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1981), 52-95. Describes the methodology adopted to identify the southern limits of Northern Hiberno English, with its distinctive English and Scottish features; includes maps.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Andrew McKenzie, the Bard of Dunover', Irish Book Lover 3, 12 (July 1912), 197-199. Biographical sketch of Andrew McKenzie, 1780-1839.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Doagh Book-Club County Antrim', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 15 (1909), 158-160. Reproduces a then-extant account of the Doagh Book Club (established 1770) from the Larne Literary & Agricultural Journal of 1838.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Robert Anderson, the Cumberland Bard: Some Notes on His Connection with Belfast and Carnmoney, 1808-1818', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 5 (1899), 100-104. On the poet Robert Anderson (d. 1833), a cotton print designer, and his association with weaver poets in Antrim and Down during his employment at Carnmoney.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Rural Libraries in Antrim', Irish Book Lover 13, 4 (November 1921), 47-52. Chiefly on the Four Towns Book Club, its influence and members, many of whom were weaver poets; expanded as part of next entry.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Thomas Beggs, an Antrim Poet, and the Four Towns Book Club', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 8 (1902), 119-127. Reproduces Fullarton's biographical sketch of Beggs (see previous entry), with notes on the Four Towns Book Club and a list of Beggs' published works.

Bigger, Francis Joseph, 'Ulster Dialect', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 10 (1904), 66-68. Introduces and reproduces the glossary of Scots words from Hugh Porter's Poetical Attempts (1813).

Black, Gladys, 'Educational Drama, Regional Dialect and Spoken Standard English', Coleraine, 1997 (University of Ulster Ph.D. thesis). Develops a curriculum to help primary-school students appreciate local dialect by having them write and perform drama with dialect-speaking characters.

Blaney, Jim, 'Upper Ards Folk and Glossary of Words', Journal of the Upper Ards Historical Society 9 (1985), 6-7. Comments on the heritage and flavour of local speech and compiles a glossary of a hundred terms, many of Irish and Scots ancestry.

Boyd, James R., 'The Bard of Moneyrea: Robert Huddleston (1814-1887)', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1 (1993), 30-33; 2 (1994), 32-34. Introduction to and appreciation of the work of the county Down poet Robert Huddleston.

Braidwood, John, 'The Brogue on the Tongue (Poor English — Good Irish)', Queen's University Association Annual Report (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 1977), 67-74. Overview of dialects in Ulster and their representation in literature; cautions that 'the Scots tradition is so much the dominant one that many erroneously equate it with the Ulster Dialect'.

Braidwood, John, 'Crowls and Runts: Ulster Dialect Terms for the Weakling of the Litter', Ulster Folklife 20 (1974), 70-84, 2 maps. Includes terms such as crowl/crile and dorby, which he traces to Lowland Scots.

Braidwood, John, 'Local Bird Names in Ulster: a Glossary', Ulster Folklife 11 (1965), 98-135. Records in this and four succeeding articles (see below) the local name, the standard English name and the place and date of their usage; does not seek to stipulate English, Irish or Scots origins.

Braidwood, John, 'Local Bird Names in Ulster: Part 2', Ulster Folklife 12 (1966), 104-107. Supplements the author's 1965 compilation.

Braidwood, John, 'Local Bird Names in Ulster: Some Additions', Ulster Folklife 17 (1971), 81-84. Further supplements the author's 1965 compilation.

Braidwood, John, 'Local Bird Names in Ulster: Further Additions', Ulster Folklife 24 (1978), 83-87. Further supplements the author's 1965 compilation.

Braidwood, John, 'Local Bird Names in Ulster: Some Additions', Ulster Folklife 33 (1987), 83-85. Further supplements the author's 1965 compilation.

Braidwood, John, 'Towards an Ulster Dialect Dictionary', Ulster Dialect Archives Bulletin 5 (1965), 3-14. Progress report on the first decade and a half of the compilation of a dictionary of Ulster dialect, with a synopsis of editorial considerations for the project initiated by the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club in 1951 and later put under the editorship of the author.

Braidwood, John, 'Ulster and Elizabethan English', in G. Brendan Adams (ed.), Ulster Dialects: an Introductory Symposium (Holywood, Ulster Folk Museum, 1964), 5-109. Contents: 1. Historical introduction: the planters; 2. Phonology; 3. Usage and vocabulary. Detailed study of the introduction by English and Scottish settlers of Elizabethan and Jacobean English into Ulster and of its subsequent influence on Ulster speech.

Braidwood, John, The Ulster Dialect Lexicon, New Lecture Series no. 51 (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 1969, reprinted 1975), 33 pp., maps. Wide-ranging discussion of the origins and usage of lexical items in Ulster dialects; includes Ulster-Scots material.

Braidwood, John, 'The Ulster Dialect: the Distinctive Speech of a Distinctive People', in Ulster: an Ethnic Nation? (Lurgan, Ulster Society, 1986), 24-40. Examines influences on the development of Ulster English, with a particular study of Ulster-Scots.

Burke, Tim, '"Yet Though I'm Irish All Without, I'm Every Item Scotch Within": Poetry and Self-fashioning in 1790's Ulster', John Clare Society Journal 22 (July, 2003), 35-49.

Carpenter, Andrew, 'From Ulster to Delaware: Two Poems by James Orr about an Eighteenth-Century Emigrant Voyage', in Charles Fanning (ed.), New Perspectives on the Irish Diaspora (Carbondale, Southern Illinois University Press, 2000), 65-74. Contrasts and appraises the language of Orr's 'Song Composed on the Banks of Newfoundland' (in English) and 'The Passengers' (in Ulster-Scots).

Carpenter, Andrew, 'Ulster-Scots Words and Expressions' in Andrew Carpenter (ed.), Verse in English from Eighteenth-Century Ireland (Cork, Cork University Press, 1998), 600-604. Glossary to anthology of 18th-century poetic texts.

Centre for Ulster-Scottish Studies: Exploring the Relationship between Ulster and Scotland: an Outline Proposal (Belfast, Ulster-Scots Heritage Council, 2000). 8 pp. Argues for establishment of a university-level centre on connections between Ulster and Scotland.

Connolly, [Rosa]lind Isabel, 'An Analysis of Some Linguistic Information Obtained from Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Ulster Poetry', Belfast, 1981 (Queen's University Belfast Ph.D. thesis). Examines the poetry of the Rhyming Weavers for what it reveals about the speech of the period.

Connolly, Linde, 'Attitudes to Life and Death in the Poetry of James Orr, an Eighteenth-Century Ulster Weaver', Ulster Folklife 31 (1985), 1-12. Through Orr's writings, examines his attitudes and those of his community; includes some social and religious background.

Connolly, Linde, 'Spoken English in Ulster in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries', Ulster Folklife 28 (1982), 33-39. Examines period accounts of local speech, especially Ulster-Scots, and the move to a more 'correct' usage.

Connolly, S. J., 'Ulster Scots', Oxford Book of Irish History, 2nd edn. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002), 592. A brief note.

Corrigan, Karen P., 'Northern Hiberno-English: the State of the Art', Irish University Review 20, 1 (1990), 91-119. Surveys research on Northern Hiberno-English from the 19th century to the present and includes Ulster-Scots; bibliography, pp. 114-119.

Crozier, Alan, 'The Scotch-Irish Influence on American English', American Speech 59 (1984), 310-331. Introduces and discusses thirty Ulster words and phrases brought to the United States and found in 20th-century speech there, focusing mainly on connections to Pennsylvania.

Delargy, Mary, 'Linguistic Diversity Education Project', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 61-65. Outlines the activities and goals of one constituent of the Linen Hall Library's Languages in Ulster Project and how the library sought to foster greater awareness of Ulster-Scots through it.

Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. See Dictionary of the Scots Language.

Dictionary of the Scots Language, <http//:www.dsl.ac.uk>, 2003. Incorporates the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue and the Scottish National Dictionary and thus documents over the course of six centuries thousands of terms in Scots and its constituent varieties, including Ulster-Scots.

Docherty, Jason, 'Imagining Ulster: Northern Ireland Protestants and Ulster Identity', Belfast, 2002 (Queen's University Belfast Ph.D. thesis). Chapter 5, 'Ulster-Scots and Northern Ireland Politics' (pp. 174-203), discusses the Ulster-Scots revival movement and the early history of the Ulster-Scots Language Society, founded in 1992.

Doherty, Gavan. 'A Word Atlas of Northern Ireland', Belfast, 2001 (Queen's University Belfast M.Sc. dissertation).

Dornan, Stephen, 'Beyond the Milesian Pale: Ulster-Scots Literature and Irish Studies', Études Irlandaises (2004). On the marginalisaton of Ulster-Scots literature within the field of Irish Studies; includes discussion of the work of James Orr, arguing that its scope and literary merit are greater than generally acknowledged.

Douglas, Ellen, 'A Sociolinguistic Study of Articlave', Ulster Folklife 21 (1975), 55-67. Condensed in Northern Ireland Speech and Language Journal 2 (1976), 25-28. From an investigation in east county Londonderry, emphasises that speech even in a small village is heterogeneous socially and situationally.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen, 'Linguistic Code-Switching in a Northern Ireland Village: Social Interaction and Social Ambition', in Peter Trudgill (ed.), Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English (London, Arnold, 1978), 37-51. Studies bidialectalism in Standard English and local English in the village of Articlave, county Londonderry.

Douglas-Cowie, Ellen, 'The Sociolinguistic Situation in Northern Ireland', in Peter Trudgill (ed.), Language in the British Isles (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984), 533-545. Identifies four types of accents (local vernacular, careful vernacular, localised standard and RP-influenced speech) that cut across regional boundaries of speech, are found in the repertoire of individual speakers and have different social significance and perceptual evaluation.

Eagle, Andy, 'A Phonological Comparison of Scots Dialects'. <www.scots-online.org/airticles/phonology.pdf>, 2000, 15 pp. Tabular comparison of vowels and consonants of Ulster-Scots and eight varieties of Scots in Scotland and the spellings used for them.

Eagle, Andy, 'Reinventing the Wheel?: or Maun Ulster Scots be Spelt Ither Nor Mainland Scots?' <www.scots-online.org/airticles/ulster.pdf>, 2000, 31 pp. Reconstructs vowel and consonant phonemes of Ulster-Scots from published studies, compares these to varieties of Scots in Scotland and considers whether a separate orthography for Ulster-Scots is justified.

Eagle, Andy, 'Ulster Scots', <www.scot.co.uk/language/scots/leidwabsteid/uscots.htm>, n.d. Identifies vowels and consonants of Ulster-Scots and cites typical words in which they occur.

Edmund, John, 'Ulster-Scots Language and Culture', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language Planning and Education: Linguistic Issues in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 6), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2002), 175-182. Surveys the background, demand (based on surveys) and prospects for future development of Ulster-Scots culture and language.

Eirug, Aled, 'Towards the BBC's Minority Languages Policy' in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Towards our Goals in Broadcasting, the Press, the Performing Arts and the Economy: Minority Languages in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 10), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 33-35. Outlines BBC Northern Ireland's development of programming on Ulster-Scots culture and language and explains basis of its policy on this programming.

Erskine, John, 'The Auld Sinner: a Forgotten Novel of the Ulster-Scots Community', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 7 (1999), 32-35. Summary and appreciation of The Auld Sinner by Samuel Angus (1881 -?), a novel written in Australia but set in the Ulster-Scots community of the author's county Antrim boyhood and including some dialogue in Ulster-Scots.

Erskine, John, 'Maggie Picken and Katie Bairdie', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 8 (2001), 70-73. Compares two stanzas of the county Down rhyme 'Maggie Picken' with versions of the rhyme 'Katie Bairdie/Beardie'.

Falconer, Gavin, 'Commercial Scots Translation — A Northern Ireland Perspective' in J. Derrick McClure (ed.), Doonsin' Emerauds: New Scrieves anent Scots and Gaelic / New Studies in Scots and Gaelic (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 11), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2004), 68-79. Identifies political, orthographic, methodological and other dilemmas and challenges faced, especially in Northern Ireland, in translating governmental documents and the Bible into modern Scots.

Falconer, Gavin, 'The Scots Leid in the New Poleitical Institutions', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 135-158. Considers the frequency and character of the Scots used in the Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly in relation to the health of the language in each jurisdiction and evaluates developing terminology in Ulster-Scots for political institutions [written in Scots].

Falconer, Gavin, 'Sort out What You Mean by Ulster-Scots', Fortnight 409 (December 2002), 2. Argues that Ulster-Scots is a dialect of Lowland Scots and that it does not have separate linguistic status from it.

Falconer, Gavin, 'The Ulster-Scots Dignity Battalion', Black Mountain Review 10 (2004), 100-106. Argues that promoters of modern written Ulster-Scots advocate a version of Scots artificially different from that found in Scotland.

Falconer, Gavin, 'Ulster-Scots or Scots in Ulster', Fortnight 424 (March 2004), 12. Says that the development of a modern written form of Ulster-Scots has created an artificial divide between Scots speakers in Northern Ireland and those in Scotland.

Falconer, Gavin, 'Ulster-Scots/Ulster-Scotch', in D. Melvin (ed.), Language and Politics/Teanga agus Polaitocht: Proceedings of a Weekend Conference, 15-16 June 2001, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin (Glenageary, Cultures of Ireland, 2001), 44-47. Discusses and compares political currents affecting Ulster-Scots and Irish in Northern Ireland.

Fenton, James, The Hamely Tongue: a Personal Record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim, 1st edn. (Newtownards, Ulster-Scots Academic Press for the Ulster-Scots Language Society, 1995), xiii + 198 pp.; 2nd edn. (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2000), 240 pp. The first dictionary of Ulster-Scots, based on the author's lifetime of observation and collection from native speakers; while drawn from county Antrim, it has obvious relevance to all Ulster-Scots speech.

Fenton, James, 'The Hamely Tongue: the Story so Far', Ulster Local Studies 16, 2 (1994), 22-28. Reprinted as 'The Hamely Tongue: the Making of an Ulster-Scots Dictionary' in Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 3 (1995), 25-30. On the background to, and the nature, procedures and purposes of the author's projected dictionary.

Fullarton, John, 'Sketches of Ulster Poets: Andrew MacKenzie', Ulster Magazine 2, 21 (September 1861), 374-378. Biographical sketch and appreciation of MacKenzie.

Fullarton, John, 'Sketches of Ulster Poets: David Herbison, the Bard of Dunclug', Ulster Magazine 2, 23 (November 1861), 457-464. Biographical sketch and appreciation of Herbison.

Fullarton, John, 'Sketches of Ulster Poets: James Orr', Ulster Magazine 2, 17 (May 1861), 217-225. Biographical sketch and appreciation drawing on extensive excerpts from Orr's poems.

Fullarton, John, 'Sketches of Ulster Poets: Life and Writings of Thomas Beggs', Ulster Magazine 2, 18 (June 1861), 243-249. Biographical sketch and appreciation of Beggs.

Gailey, Alan, 'The Scots Element in North Irish Popular Culture', Ethnologia Europaea 8 (1975), 2-22. Examines range of Scottish influences on Ulster — religious, linguistic and cultural.

Gailey, Alan, 'The Ulster Poets and Local Life, 1790-1870', in John Gray and Wesley McCann (eds.), An Uncommon Bookman: Essays in Memory of J. R. R. Adams (Belfast, Linen Hall Library, 1996), 159-174. Examines the work of poets as a source of local social history.

Gilbert, Andrea, 'Ulster-Scots in Education in Northern Ireland: the History of the Language', in Dónall Ó Riagáin (ed.), Language and Law in Northern Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 9), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 78-87. Outlines the history of Scots and Ulster-Scots and their relationships with other languages in Europe.

Gillespie, Conal, 'Towards an Index of Ulster-Scots Place Names in Donegal and the North West', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 8 (2001), 32-33. Presents an indicative selection of place names.

Gillespie, Conal, 'Ulster-Scots: View from Donegal', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 7 (1999), 12-13. Essay on the revival of Ulster-Scots language and culture from a commentator in Donegal.

Gilmore, Peter (ed.), 'Scots-Irish' Words from the Pennsylvania Mountains Taken from the Shoemaker Collection (Bruceton Mills, Scotpress, 1999), ii + 98 pp. Glossary of words from Pennsylvania mountains of the early 20th century probably or possibly brought by Ulster emigrants; cross-references terms to dictionaries and other sources from Scotland and Ulster.

Gilpin, Sandra, 'And the Muse Went Weaving Free: the Story of Robert Huddleston, Bard of Moneyrea', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 7 (1999), 58-72. Biographical sketch and appreciation of the county Down poet by a local historian, based largely on local records such as ones kept by the Moneyreagh Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church.

Gilpin, Sandra, 'Gilnahirk's Lost Poets', East Belfast Historical Society Journal 4:1 (2002), 60-76. Chiefly on Francis Boyle (Boal) and John Meharg, three of whose poems she identifies within Boyle's Miscellaneous Poems of 1811.

Gilpin, Sandra, "'O Moneyrea, Thy Bard is Gone": Robert Huddleston, 1814-1887', Non-Subscribing Presbyterian. Part 1, 1134 (May 2003), 2-3; Part 2, 1135 (June 2000), 3-4; Part 3, 1136, (July 2000), 6, 13; Part 4, 1138 (September 2000), 2-5; Part 5, 1139 (October 2000), 7-10. Examines Huddleston within the context of his community and his congregation and the denominational controversies of his day.

Görlach, Manfred, A Textual History of Scots (Heidelberg, Winter, 2002), 324 pp. Brief discussion of modern written Ulster-Scots, mainly with regard to issues of language planning.

Görlach, Manfred, 'Ulster-Scots — a Language?', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language and Politics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2000), 13-31. Reprinted in Manfred Görlach, Still More Englishes (Amsterdam, Benjamins, 2002), 69-86. Examines the status of Ulster-Scots in comparative perspective to language varieties in Northern Germany, Switzerland, Yugoslavia and Jamaica and assesses problems facing its modern development.

Grant, William and David Murison (eds.), The Scottish National Dictionary, 10 vols. (Edinburgh, Scottish National Dictionary Association, 1931-1976). Definitive dictionary of Scots words in use from 1700 to the present, primarily from published material; includes Ulster in its coverage. Volume I introduction has brief overview (p. xli) of Ulster-Scots, which it calls 'in the main a variant of w[est-]m[id] Scots'.

Gray, Jane, 'Folk Poetry and Working Class Identity in Ulster: an Analysis of James Orr's "The Penitent'", Journal of Historical Sociology 6 (1993), 249-275. Shows that Orr's poem reveals how some members of the rural working class in late-19th-century Ulster responded to the social and economic upheavals of the time by emphasising values of sobriety, responsibility and dignity.

Gray, John, 'Burns and His Visitors from Ulster: from Adulation to Disaccord', Studies in Scottish Literature, 33-34 (2004), 320-334.

Gregg, R. J., 'Dialect Detective: On the Trail of "a Desperate Coulrife Crater'", Ireland's Saturday Night (1953), June 13. Announces and calls for readers to contribute material to the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club project to compile an Ulster Dialect Dictionary.

Gregg, R. J., 'Dialect Mixture in Scotch-Irish Urban Speech', Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 2 (1976), 35-37. Illustrates how, when moving into even a small urban area, rural speakers modify their Ulster-Scots pronunciation and vocabulary in the direction of urban Ulster-Scots and sometimes adopt forms from Ulster English rather than the national standard.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Diphthongs [əi] and [aɪ] in Scottish, Scotch-Irish and Canadian English', Canadian Journal of Linguistics 18 (1973), 136-145. Explores the abstract rules that govern pronunciation of diphthongs in words like price and prize in five varieties of English and Scots.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Distribution of Raised and Lowered Diphthongs as Reflexes in Two Scotch-Irish Dialects', in Wolfgang U. Dressier and F. V. Mareš (eds.), Phonologica: Akten der 2 Internationalen Phonologie-Tagung (Vienna/Munich, Fink, 1972), 101-105. Explores how pronunciation of the diphthong in words like wife and by differs in rural and urban Ulster-Scots.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Muttonburrn [sic] Stream', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 4 (1996), 37-38. Transcription of the song using the author's own spelling system for Ulster-Scots.

Gregg, R. J., 'Notes on the Phonology of a County Antrim Scotch-Irish Dialect', Orbis 7 (1958), 392-406. Detailed phonological description of the vowels, diphthongs and consonants of the contemporary Ulster-Scots of Glenoe.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Phonology of the Antrim Dialect. II: Historical Phonology', Orbis 8 (1959), 400-424. Detailed description of the vowels, diphthongs and consonants of the Ulster-Scots of Glenoe as they developed from Middle English.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Phonology of an East Antrim Dialect', Belfast, 1953 (Queen's University Belfast M.A. dissertation). Comprehensive account, exhaustively exemplified, of the vowels, diphthongs and consonants of the Ulster-Scots of Glenoe and Larne as they developed from Middle English and older varieties of English, Norse, French, etc.

Gregg, R. J., The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in the Province of Ulster CFH/FCEH no. 6. ([Port Credit, Ontario, Canadian Federation for the Humanities], 1985), [xv] + 290 pp., 91 pp. of plates. Revision of 'The Boundaries of the Scotch-Irish Dialects in Ulster', Edinburgh, 1963 (University of Edinburgh Ph.D. thesis). Based on phonological survey of 660 words and phrases; includes over 90 maps and represents the foundational study in the modern demarcation of the Ulster-Scots speech territory, especially for pronunciation.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster', in Martyn F. Wakelin (ed.), Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles (London, Athlone, 1972), 109-139, map. Detailed phonological study of dialect areas based on fourteen sets of features that distinguish Ulster Anglo-Irish (Ulster English) from Ulster-Scots; describes the fieldwork and development of the questionnaire used in his research.

Gregg, R. J., 'Scotch-Irish Urban Speech in Ulster', in G. Brendan Adams (ed.), Ulster Dialects: an Introductory Symposium (Holywood, Ulster Folk Museum, 1964), 163-192. Phonological description of the Ulster-Scots dialect of the Larne urban area.

Gregg, R. J., 'The Ulster Dialect Dictionary', Ulster Education (September 1951), 24-25. Describes the aims and organisation of a newly-launched project undertaken by the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club.

Gribben, Crawford, 'Ulster-Scots and the Scottish Vernacular Revival', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 9/10 (2004), 58-61. Argues that the recovery of Ulster-Scots language and culture is proceeding apace and that the language is now enjoying a revival similar to the one in Scotland in the 1920s and 1930s with the writing of Hugh MacDiarmid and others.

Harris, John, 'English in the North of Ireland', in Peter Trudgill (ed.), Language in the British Isles (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994), 115-134. Examines the vowel systems of three types of northern Hiberno-English (Ulster-Scots, south Ulster, Belfast), with comments on consonants, morphology and syntax.

Harris, John, Phonological Variation and Change: Studies in Hiberno-English (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985), [xii] + 379 pp. Detailed study of vowel mergers and other features of pronunciation in Ulster; distinguishes between the phonological systems of Ulster-Scots, Mid-Ulster English and South Ulster English.

Henry, Alison, Belfast English and Standard English: Dialect Variation and Parameter Setting (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995), x + 150 pp. Analyses subject-verb agreement, relative clauses, and other syntactic patterns from a theoretical point of view and finds that the English of Belfast has abstract differences from Standard English.

Henry, Alison, 'Infinitives in a for-to Dialect', Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 10 (1992), 279-301. Finds that infinitives in Belfast English are often introduced with for to, in contrast with to in Standard English and explores the theoretical implications of this.

Henry, Alison, 'Singular Concord in Belfast English', Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12 (1994), 134-176. Examines grammatical constraints on subject-verb concord patterns in Belfast English inherited from Scots.

Henry, Alison, 'The Syntax of Belfast English', in Jeffrey Kallen (ed.), Focus on Ireland (Amsterdam, Benjamins, 1997), 89-107. Surveys major grammatical patterns in Belfast English, including inversion in embedded questions, inverted imperatives, subject-verb concord, verb principal parts, multiple negatives, for to infinitives and others.

Henry, Alison and John Wilson, 'Parameter Setting within a Socially Realistic Linguistics', Language in Society 27 (1998), 1-21. Argues that sociolinguistics and theoretical syntax can be integrated through the 'principles and parameters' model to analysis of two grammatical constructions, inverted imperatives and verbal concord.

Henry, P. L., 'A Linguistic Survey of Ireland—Preliminary Report', Lochlann: A Review of Celtic Studies 1 (1958), 49-208. Includes data from two speakers from the Braid Valley, east county Antrim.

Herbison, David, 'John Smith — "Magowan"', Ulster Magazine 2, 23 (November 1861), 441-444. Biographical sketch and appreciation.

Herbison, David, My Ain Native Toon, Ivan Herbison (ed.), (Ballymena, Dunclug, 2000), 24 pp. Reproduces and discusses the themes, significance and mixed reception of Herbison's nostalgic poem about Ballymena.

Herbison, David (edited and with an introduction by Ivan Herbison), Webs of Fancy: Poems of David Herbison, the Bard of Dunclug (Ballymena, Dunclug, 1980), 52 pp. Selection and appreciation of the mid-Antrim poet's work by a descendant on the centenary of the poet's death.

Herbison, Ivan, 'A Bard in His Literary Context: David Herbison and Poetry in Nineteenth-Century Ballymena', Mid-Antrim Part 2: Further Articles on Ballymena and District, Eull Dunlop (ed.), (Ballymena, Mid-Antrim Historical Group, 1991), 99-112. Discusses David Herbison's fellow poets John Getty and John Smyth.

Herbison, Ivan, David Herbison's Religious Affiliations: Some Preliminary Notes on the Bard of Dunclug and Presbyterianism (Ballymena, Dunclug, 1993), 8 pp. Examines the poet's affiliation with the Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Church.

Herbison, Ivan, 'David Herbison, the Bard of Dunclug: a Poet and His Community, 1800-1880', in Eull Dunlop (ed.), Mid-Antrim: Articles on the History of Ballymena and District (Ballymena, Mid-Antrim Historical Group 1983), 102-130. Reprinted Ballymena, Dunclug, 1980, ii + 30 pp. Profiles the author's mid-Antrim ancestor, the last of the Rhyming Weaver poets.

Herbison, Ivan, Language, Literature and Cultural Identity: an Ulster-Scots Perspective (Ballymena, Dunclug, 1989), 9 pp. Reprinted in Joan Lundy and Aodán Mac Póilin (eds.), Styles of Belonging: the Cultural Identities of Ulster (Belfast, Lagan Press, 1992), 54-62. Revised edition (Ballymena, Dunclug, 1999). Places the Rhyming Weaver poets within a larger historical, cultural and political perspective in which Presbyterianism was a crucial influence, and argues that the poets represented a tradition common to that found in Scotland, not a derivative one; calls for a renewed appreciation of the poets to understand cultural diversity in present-day Northern Ireland.

Herbison, Ivan, 'Oor Ain Native Tung', in Talking Scots, supplement to Fortnight 318 (June 1993), 13-17. Examines the Ulster-Scots literary tradition and its marginalisation, past and present.

Herbison, Ivan, 'Presbyterianism, Politics and Poetry: Some Aspects of an Ulster-Scots Literary Tradition', Bulletin of the Presbyterian Historical Society of Ireland 25 (1996), 1-21. Revised, with additional bibliographical material, as Presbyterianism, Politics and Poetry in Nineteenth-Century Ulster: Some Aspects of an Ulster-Scots Literary Tradition (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 2000), [v] + 26 pp. On the role of language, linen, place, education, self-improvement, book clubs, reading societies, politics and literary currents in the ethos of the Rhyming Weaver poets of the 19th century.

Herbison, Ivan, '"The Rest is Silence": Some Remarks on the Disappearance of Ulster-Scots Poetry', in John Erskine and Gordon Lucy (eds.), Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland. Varieties of Scottishness: Exploring the Ulster-Scottish Connection (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1997), 129-145. Examines the Rhyming Weavers and their poetry and discusses its exclusion from the accepted canon of Irish literature.

Herbison, Ivan, 'A Sense of Place: Landscape and Locality in the Work of the Rhyming Weavers', in Gerald Dawe and John Wilson Foster (eds.), The Poet's Place: Ulster Literature and Society: Essays in Honour of John Hewitt, 1907-1987 (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1991), 63-75. On the poets' sense of place and community, notably as in the works of Orr, Beggs and Herbison.

Herron, Stephen, 'Bab M'Keen: the McKeenstown (Ballymena) Scotch Chronicler', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 6 (1998), 48-49. Note on the writing of 'Bab M'Keen', editor of, and contributor to, the Ballymena Observer, c1878-c1910.

Hewitt, John, Rhyming Weavers and Other Country Poets of Antrim and Down (Belfast, Blackstaff, 1974), viii + 135 pp. Reprinted with a new introduction by Tom Paulin (Belfast, Blackstaff, 2004). The pioneering study introducing and discussing the poets, their background, and their political and social ethos (the role of book clubs, reading societies, etc.), pp. 1-80; anthology of the poems, pp. 82-129; glossary, pp. 130-133.

Hewitt, John, 'Ulster Poets, 1800-1850' (Belfast, 1950), 27 pp. Lecture delivered to the Belfast Literary Society, 2 January 1950; includes the Rhyming Weaver poets.

Hickey, Raymond, 'Ireland as a Linguistic Area', Ulster Folklife 45 (1999), 36-53. Argues the number of shared features (especially of pronunciation) and their lack of clear geographical boundaries across Ireland makes the island as a whole a distinct speech area, but does not consider ways in which Ulster-Scots differs from Mid-Ulster English and Southern Irish English and what it shares with Lowland Scotland.

Horsbroch, Dauvit, 'Mair as a Sheuch atween Scotland an Ulster: Twa Policie for the Scots Leid?', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language and Politics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2000), 133-141. Contrasts developments in official policy and support for Scots in Northern Ireland and Scotland between 1997 and 2000 [written in Scots].

Horsbroch, Dauvit, 'A Twalmonth an a Wee Tait Forder', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 123-133. Cites Scots-language developments in Northern Ireland and Scotland from the previous year and concludes that they represent very little progress; critiques the Ulster-Scots used in publications from the Ulster-Scots Agency and the Linen Hall Library [written in Scots].

Hughes, A. J., 'Ulster Scots gowk storm, Ulster Gaelic (s)gairbhshion na cuaiche', Ulster Folklife 37 (1991), 107-108. Says that the term gowk storm 'cuckoo storm' (for a brief storm in early spring, when the bird is heard), previously thought to be brought from Scotland, also reflects Gaelic tradition in Ireland.

Hume, David, 'The Bard of Ballycarry', New Ulster 10 (Spring 1990), 11-12. Brief account of James Orr, the weaver poet.

Joyce, Patrick W., English as We Speak It in Ireland (London, Longmans, Green, 1910). Reprinted by Wolfhound, Dublin, with a new introduction by Terence Dolan, Dublin, 1979. Author's glossary (pp. 209-351) contains items from Ulster supplied by correspondents.

Kallen, Jeffrey L., 'Irish English and the Ulster-Scots Controversy' Ulster Folklife 45 (1999), 70-85. Argues that the status of Ulster-Scots and its relationship with Irish English cannot be ascertained before three 'controversies' are resolved: the Origins Controversy (whether language varieties consist mainly of features attributable to contact in Ireland or retention from British varieties brought to Ireland); the Category Controversy (the extent to which varieties are consistently defined and distinct from one another); and the Variation Controversy (the extent to which differences between varieties are quantitative or qualitative).

Kay, Billy, Scots: the Mither Tongue, 2nd edn. (Darvel, Alloway, 1993), 199 pp. Popular, authoritative account of Scots, its origins, its literature, its spoken varieties and its future; includes section on Ulster-Scots (pp 162-165).

Kay, Billy, 'The Scots ower the Sheugh', in Ian S. Wood (ed.), Scotland and Ulster (Edinburgh, Mercat, 1994), 88-96. Argues that Ulster-Scots language and culture are ignored and misunderstood in Scotland and that Scots on both sides of the channel have much to learn from one another.

Kingsmore, Rona R., 'Status, Stigma and Sex in Ulster-Scots Speech', Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 13 (1996), 223-237. Examines different pronunciations of t in Coleraine according to age, sex, social class and rural vs. urban origin; finds, contrary to prevailing tendencies elsewhere, that women are sometimes more non-standard than men.

Kingsmore, Rona R. (edited by Michael B. Montgomery, and with a foreword by James Milroy and Lesley Milroy), Ulster-Scots Speech: a Sociolinguistic Study (Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 1995), xxv + 244 pp. Shows that the pronunciation of three consonants varies systematically within the Protestant community in Coleraine according to such stylistic and social factors as attention to speech, age, sex, social class, type of housing and rural vs. urban origin.

Kirk, John M., 'Archipelagic Glotto-Politics: The Scotstacht', in Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.), Celtic Englishes III (Heidelberg, Winter, 2003), 339-356. Surveys and assesses recent views and developments in the political, legal and terminological status of Ulster-Scots and discusses challenges facing it.

Kirk, John M., 'The Dialect Vocabulary of Ulster', Cuadernos de Filología Inglesa 8 (1999), 305-334. Examines a sample of the dialect vocabulary in Concise Ulster Dictionary (Macafee, 1996) and analyses it in terms of subject areas and affinities with varieties in Scotland and England.

Kirk, John, 'Language, Culture and Division', Fortnight 396 (June 2001), 18-19. Contrasts the traditional spoken and modern written versions of Ulster-Scots and argues that the latter is an artificial form created by political motivations seeking to divide rather than harmonise cultural groups in Northern Ireland.

Kirk, John M., 'The New Written Scots Dialect in Present-Day Northern Ireland', in M. Ljung (ed.), Language Structure and Variation: A Festschrift for Gunnel Melchers (Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiskell, 2000), 121-138. Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis XCII. Revised and expanded as the following item.

Kirk, John M., 'Two Ullans Texts', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language and Politics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2000), 33-44. Reproduces and analyses two recent texts in modern written Ulster-Scots: a booklet on employment opportunity produced by Belfast City Council and a newspaper advertisement for a Civil Service post.

Kirk, John M., 'Ulster English: The State of the Art', in Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.), Celtic Englishes (Heidelberg, Winter, 1997), 135-179. Surveys and categorises scholarship on Ulster English published through 1995; includes some works on Ulster-Scots.

Kirk, John M., 'Ulster Scots: Realities and Myths', Ulster Folklife 44 (1998), 69-93, seven maps. Chronicles the evolution of Lowland Scots and the merger of its written form with English in Scotland, concluding that 'there is no present-day Scots language'; on this basis and using criteria such as vitality, standardisation and autonomy, concludes that Ulster-Scots today is only a perceived variety and does not qualify as a 'fully-fledged language'.

Kirk, John M., 'Ulster-Scots/Ulster-Scotch', in D. Melvin (ed.), Language and Politics/Teanga agus Polaitócht: Proceedings of a Weekend Conference, 15-16 June 2001, Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin (Glenageary, Cultures of Ireland, 2001), 38-43. Argues that a political dynamic has driven the 'invention' of Ullans, a written variety of Ulster-Scots which the author says has little basis in speech; asserts that Ulster-Scots is found throughout the nine historical counties of Ulster.

Kirk, John M., and Georgina Millar, 'Verbal Aspect in the Scots and English of Ulster', Scottish Language 17 (1998), 82-107. Argues that the use of do(es) be and be(s) in Ulster speech to express habitual actions and realities is dominant, but that the verbs are also used to express durative and punctual aspects; suggests that the latter uses can be traced to Older Scots.

Laird, John, 'Carrying Scots to Scotland', Fortnight 408 (November 2002), 15. Argues that historical, cultural and linguistic ties bind Scotland and Ulster despite differences in the present-day political landscape.

Laird, John, 'Language Policy and the Ulster-Scots Agency', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 37-41. Outlines the mission of the Ulster-Scots Agency and its policies for language planning and development for Ulster-Scots.

Lambkin, Brian, 'The Return of Hugh Campbell in 1835 from the United States to Ulster and the Issue of Linguistic Diversity', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 1 (2000), 61-71. Cites evidence of tolerance of linguistic diversity and good community relations from county Tyrone in the early 19th century and suggests this should be a model for the present day.

Languages of Ulster Pocket Guide (Belfast, Linen Hall Library, 2000), 12 pp. Identifies support groups and key phrases for six languages, including Ulster-Scots.

Lucy, Gordon, 'Linguistic Bigotry', Fortnight 396 (June 2001), 16. Argues that languages like Irish and Ulster-Scots can survive only if people have a positive reason to embrace them rather than their becoming a tool of political struggle and domination.

Lunney, Linde. See also Linde Connolly.

Lunney, Linde, 'The Nature of the Ulster-Scots Language Community', in John Erskine and Gordon Lucy (eds.), Cultural Traditions in Northern Ireland. Varieties of Scottishness: Exploring the Ulster-Scottish Connection (Belfast, Institute of Irish Studies, 1997), 113-127. Examines the inter-relationship of language, culture and identity within the Ulster-Scots community in the late 18th and early 19th century, with many citations of period documents.

Lunney, Linde, 'Ulster Attitudes to Scottishness: the Eighteenth Century and After', in Ian S. Wood (ed.), Scotland and Ulster (Edinburgh, Mercat, 1994), 56-70. Advances psychological explanations for amnesia on both sides of the North Channel with regard to the large emigration from Scotland to Ulster in the 17th century and explores how and why a sense of connectedness to Scotland was rekindled in Ulster in the latter half of the 18th century.

Macafee, Caroline (ed.), A Concise Ulster Dictionary (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996), xli + 405 pp. A dictionary of Ulster dialect, prepared mainly for use in secondary schools, that includes many items of Ulster-Scots speech from the published literature and collections on deposit at the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum.

Macafee, Caroline, 'A History of Scots to 1700', in Margaret Dareau et al. (eds.), Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, vol. 12 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2002). Note (p. xlix) on the coming of Scots to Ulster, placed within the larger context of spread of Scots and the retraction of Gaelic.

Macafee, Caroline, 'Lowland Sources of Ulster-Scots: Some Comparisons between Robert Gregg's Data and The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland (volume 3)', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language Links: the Languages of Scotland and Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 2), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 119-132. Says that intensive data collected by Gregg complements the paucity of Ulster data in third volume of Linguistic Atlas of Scotland (Mather and Speitel 1986), thereby providing information on the development of Scots at critical earlier periods.

Macafee, Caroline, 'The Ulster Dictionary Project', Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 12 (1994), 177-193. Discusses background and rationale for the Concise Ulster Dictionary, which includes much Ulster-Scots material.

McAlister, Patricia, 'The Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure's Language Diversity and Broadcasting Policy' in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Towards our Goals in Broadcasting, the Press, the Performing Arts and the Economy: Minority Languages in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 10), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 29-32. Overview and background of the Department's policies with regard to Irish and Ulster-Scots.

McAlister, Patricia, 'Implementing the European Charter in Northern Ireland: The Role of the Public Service', in Dónall Ó Riagáin (ed.), Language and Law in Northern Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 9), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 45-51. Outlines the work of the Linguistic Diversity Branch, a civil service unit given the task of implementing Northern Ireland government policy in the wake of the Belfast Good Friday Agreement.

McAvoy, Will, Elspeth Barnes and Philip Robinson, 'Some Field Names in the Greyabbey District', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1 (1993), 16-21. Combined with Elspeth Barnes, Will McAvoy and Philip Robinson, 'More Place Names around Greyabbey' and reprinted as 'Some Names in the Greyabbey District', in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 77-86. Surveys field names in the county Down village and categorises them according to their designation as a field, hill, bog, knowe, acre, garden, land, etc.

McBride, Doreen, Ulster Scots as She Tummels (Banbridge, Adare, 2000), 48 pp. Popular introduction, including lists of phrases, words with two meanings, words with a different meaning in English and a basic vocabulary.

McBride, Terry (ed.), In Other Words: the Languages of Europe, Celebrating the Launch of the European Year of Languages in Northern Ireland with the Linenhall Library's Languages of Ulster Project (Belfast, Community Relations Council and the Linen Hall Library, 2001), 40 pp. Produced in connection with the Languages in Ulster project and the European Year of Languages; features phrases in 26 languages, contact addresses and information on European languages. Another printing of cover also reads 'pocket guide'.

McCafferty, Kevin, 'Frae "Wile Norn Aksents" tae Our Ain National Leid', Causeway Part I, 3, 1 (Spring 1996), 39-44; Part II, 3, 2 (Summer 1996), 48-53. Questions the status of Ulster-Scots and the motivations behind its resurgence.

McCafferty, Kevin, 'The Northern Subject Rule in Ulster: How Scots, How English?', Language Variation and Change 15 (2003), 105-139. Argues that patterns of subject-verb concord found throughout Ulster in the mid-19th century were produced by early-17th-century settlement from northern England as well as Scotland.

McCafferty, Kevin, 'Plural Verbal -s in Nineteenth-Century Ulster: Scots and English Influences on Ulster Dialects', Ulster Folklife 48 (2002), 62-86. Argues that the system of subject-verb concord found in Ulster speech came to Ulster from all parts of Britain in the 17th century, not only Scotland, based on mid-19th-century emigrant letters and traces of the pattern in southern and western England.

McCall, Cathal, 'Political Transformation and the Reinvention of the Ulster-Scots Identity and Culture', Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 9 (2002), 197-218. Argues that the rise of Ulster-Scots identity in the past decade within the Unionist community has many manifestations: as a myth of origin, a language and culture, a communal consciousness, a reaction against Irish nationalist cultural assertiveness in Northern Ireland, an embryonic nationalism and a component part of the British identity, all designed to counter Irish nationalism and alleviate Unionist doubt and insecurity.

McCausland, Nelson, 'Ulster-Scots: a Proud Heritage', Fortnight 390 (December 2000), 19. Defends Ulster-Scots language and culture as one of three historical cultural traditions and argues that many in Northern Ireland have multiple identities.

McCausland, Nelson, 'Ulster-Scots and the BBC: the Current Situation', in Dónall Ó Riagáin (ed.), Language and Law in Northern Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 9), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 113-121. Castigates BBC Northern Ireland and Radio Ulster for their lack of Ulster-Scots programming and for having a policy to marginalise and disparage Ulster-Scots.

McCoy, Gordon, and Camille O'Reilly, 'Essentializing Ulster?: The Ulster-Scots Language Movement', in Maria Tymoczko and Colin Ireland (eds.), Language and Tradition in Ireland: Continuities and Displacements (Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 2003), 156-171. Explores the political context in which the Ulster-Scots revival has taken place and examines cultural factors, such as rivalry with Irish, that have given momentum to the Ulster-Scots language movement.

McCrum, Robert, William Cran and Robert MacNeil (eds.), 'The Guid Scots Tongue', The Story of English (New York, Viking, 1986), 127-161. Chronicles the transplantation of Scottish culture and language to Ulster in the 17th century and to America in the 18th, where it can still be documented especially in Appalachia.

McIlvanney, Liam, 'Across the Narrow Sea: the Language, Literature and Politics of Ulster Scots' in Liam Mcllvanney and Ray Ryan (eds.), Ireland and Scotland: Culture and Society (Dublin, Four Courts Press, 2005), 203-226.

McIlvanney, Liam, '"On Irish Ground": Burns and the Ulster-Scots Radical Poets' in his Burns the Radical: Poetry and Politics in Late Eighteenth-Century Scotland (East Linton, Tuckwell, 2002), 220-240. Shows how Rhyming Weaver poets (especially Orr and Thompson) drew on Burns and a popular and intellectual culture shared with Scotland, and examines how the reputation of Burns in Ulster shifted from idolatry to disappointment; says 'the neglect of Ulster vernacular poetry is unfortunate, depriving us of an important window onto the cultural life of the period, and skewing of perception of Ulster-Scottish cultural connections'.

McIlvanney, Liam, 'Robert Burns and the Ulster-Scots Literary Revival of the 1790s', Bullán 4, 2 (Winter/Spring 1999/2000), 125-143. Studies attitudes of Ulster-Scots poets to Burns and his influence on them.

McIntosh, John S., 'Ulster Proverbs and Provincialisms', in The Scotch-Irish in America: Proceedings and Addresses of the Ninth Conference, Knoxville, Tenn., June 7-10, 1900 (Nashville, 1900), 193-199. Examines pithiness and colour of popular sayings, with many examples in Scots.

McIntyre, John, 'Hoo's Things, Bilfawst?', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 6 (1998), 42-45. Popular introduction to a range of Ulster-Scots features present in Belfast speech.

McIntyre, John, 'Minority Languages — Why They are so Important', The Ulster-Scot 5 (October 2004). Says that Ulster-Scots and more than fifty other European minority or regional languages contribute to the diversity of the continent and are important expressions of the identity of their speakers.

McIntyre, John, 'Ulster-Scots in the Classroom', Integrated News (March 2000), [2]. On the need to include the Ulster-Scots tradition within the schools curriculum.

McIntyre, John, 'Ulster-Scots — the European Charter/Belfast Agreement', Contact Bulletin 15, 1 (1998), 2. Welcomes the announcement that the United Kingdom Government intends to sign the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages and expresses hope that the European context which this action will provide can enable both Irish and Ulster-Scots to progress in a depoliticised fashion.

McIntyre, Rae (ed.), Some Handlin': the Dialect Heritage of North Ulster, Collected by Pupils and Friends of Ballyrashane Primary School 2nd edn. (Limavady, North-West Books, 1990), 79 pp. Dictionary of words and phrases with examples of usage, quotations and drawings (by pupils), particularly useful for Ulster-Scots. Foreword by John Braidwood.

McKinney, Jack, 'The Ulster-Scots Language Society', Bulletin of the Presbyterian Historical Society of Ireland 22 (1993), 28-30. Brief account of the establishment and aims of the Society.

McLaughlin, Brian, 'Sober Man Grasps Thistle', Fortnight 404 (May 2002). 17-18. Argues that the Ulster-Scots language revival movement is misguided and counterproductive.

McMaster, Johnston, 'Ulster-Scots Identity: Fact or Fiction', Search: a Church of Ireland Journal 27:1 (Spring 2004), 21-32. Examines the current 'Ulster-Scots identity enterprise' and its 'myth', and includes a discussion of Ulster-Scots language which he uses with his own father.

MacLeod, Iseabail and Pauline Cairns (eds.), The Scots School Dictionary: Scots-English, English-Scots (Edinburgh, 1996), xii + 370 pp. First two-way dictionary; designed for schools but of wider application; includes many Scots forms used in Ulster, but does not cite Ulster forms.

MacLeod, Iseabail, Ruth Martin and Pauline Cairns (eds.), The Pocket Scots Dictionary (Aberdeen, 1988), xxiv + 360 pp. Reissued by Chambers, 1992. Abbreviated version of the Concise Scots Dictionary (Mairi Robinson, ed.); includes many Scots forms used in Ulster, but does not cite Ulster forms.

Mac Póilin, Aodán, 'Language, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland', Ulster Folklife 45 (1999), 108-132. Says that Irish and especially Ulster-Scots have become destructive tools of polarisation and rival political aspirations; provides ideological critique of myths tracing the origin of Ulster-Scots people to the Cruthin (the Pretani or Ulster Picts), a remnant people sometimes said to have returned to Ulster from Scotland in 17th-century plantations, or to the Lost Tribes of Israel, the latter view popularised since the 19th century by British Israelism.

Mac Póilin, Aodán, 'Politics Suffocates Language Debate', Fortnight 396 (June 2001), 17. Argues that in Northern Ireland 'language activists are ideologues, who actively promote cultural apartheid to underpin political polarisation, sometimes covertly, sometimes overtly'.

Marshall, John J., 'The Dialect of Ulster. [Part 1]', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 10 (1904), 121-130. Introduces and presents a 'Glossary of words in the Ulster dialect chiefly used in the midland and north-western counties', which contributes to the study of Ulster dialect outside the area dominated by the 'Lowland Scotch spoken in County Antrim, parts of County Derry and the Ards' and which ranges from 'Scottish speech to the broken English of the bilingual native of Donegal'. First glossary, A - Y.

Marshall, John J., 'The Dialect of Ulster. [Part 2]', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 11 (1905), 64-70. Second glossary, A - F.

Marshall, John J., 'The Dialect of Ulster. [Part 3]', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 11 (1905), 122-125. Second glossary, F - P.

Marshall, John J., 'The Dialect of Ulster. [Part 4]', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 11 (1905), 175-179. Second glossary, P - Y.

Marshall, John J., 'The Dialect of Ulster. [Part 5]', Ulster Journal of Archaeology new series 12 (1906), 18-22. Third glossary, A - Y. Says 'the great number of lowland Scottish words and phrases occurring is due in a large measure to County Derry ... and are a standing record of how deeply the Scottish colonists impressed their speech in the northern province'.

Marshall, W. F. Ulster Speaks (London, BBC, 1936), 37 pp. Published transcripts of six radio broadcast talks on Ulster dialect and its sources from English, Irish, and Scots; chapter 4, 'The Brand of the Thistle' (pp 21-26) deals with the Scottish imprint on Ulster English.

Mather, J. Y., and H. H. Speitel, The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland. Scots Section, 3 volumes (London, Croom Helm, 1975, 1977, 1986). Lists, locates and maps variant terms for some 180 selected items in Scotland, Ulster, Cumberland and Northumberland.

Milroy, James, Regional Accents of English: Belfast (Belfast, Blackstaff, 1981). States that 'in these Scots areas there are a great many rural speakers who speak a dialect of Scots rather than English; in its strongest forms it is also indistinguishable from the Scots dialects of West and Central Scotland'.

Milroy, James, 'Some Connections between Galloway and Ulster Speech', Scottish Language 1 (1982), 23-29. Examines several characteristics and concludes that both areas retain features now obsolete in central Scots.

Montgomery, Michael, 'An Academy Established and the Task Begun', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 9/10 (2004), 102-11. Discusses the background and the main projects of the Ulster-Scots Academy, founded in 1994.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Anglicization of Scots in Early Seventeenth Century Ulster', Studies in Scottish Literature 26 (1992), 50-64. Quantitative study examining the replacement of Scots forms by English forms for five grammatical features in the writing of Lowland Scots who settled in Ulster during the Plantation period.

Montgomery, Michael, 'British and Irish Antecedents', in John Algeo (ed.), Cambridge History of the English Language, Volume 6: North America (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001), 86-153. Comprehensive essay tracing the transplantation of English and Scots to the United States and exploring the influence of their vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar on the constituent dialects of American English; finds Ulster influence strongest in Pennsylvania and Appalachia.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Celtic Element in American English', in Hildegard L. C. Tristram (ed.), Celtic Englishes II (Heidelberg, Winter, 2000), 231-264. Argues that few of the vocabulary and grammatical features brought by Ulster emigrants to America were derived from or based on Gaelic, including the habitual use of the verb be and the a- prefix on verbs, but calls for more research into the question.

Montgomery, Michael, 'David Bruce: Ulster-Scot-American Poet', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 4 (1996), 23-27. Reprinted in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 111-117. Essay on an early Pennsylvania poet of Ulster ancestry who wrote verse in Scots in the 1790s under the name 'the Scots-Irishman', with excerpts of his work.

Montgomery, Michael, 'An Early Letter in Ulster Scots', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster Scots 2 (1994), 45-51. Reprinted in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 97-104. Provides historical background for and analyses the text of a spoof emigrant letter published in 1737 in American newspapers and a 1767 revision of the same document that apparently circulated in manuscript in Ulster for some time.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Emigrants from Ulster Meet the Observer's Paradox: A Typology of Emigrant Letter Writers', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 4 (2003), 10-18. Argues that linguists and social historians can contribute to one another's understanding of Ulster emigration and the language patterns it brought and exemplifies this through reproduction and analysis of 18th-century documents.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Etymology of y'all', in Joan H. Hall et al. (eds.), Old English and New: Studies in Language and Linguistics in Honor of Frederic G. Cassidy (New York, Garland, 1992), 356-369. Relying on attestation in a period document (see Montgomery, 'An Early Letter in Ulster Scots'), argues that the well-known form in Southern American English was brought by Ulster emigrants in the 18th century.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Exploring the Roots of Appalachian English', English World-Wide 10 (1989), 227-278. Examines influence of the grammar of 'the language of the Scotch-Irish'; programmatic essay outlining the historical background and the methodological requirements to reconstructing the linguistic influence from Scotland and Ireland on varieties of American English, especially that of southern Appalachia.

Montgomery, Michael, 'How Scotch-Irish is Your English?', Journal of East Tennessee History 67 (1995), 1-33. Assesses influence of Ulster-Scots speech on that of East Tennessee.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Lexicography of Hiberno-English', Irish Studies Working Papers 93-3 (1993), 19-35. Surveys and provides a comparative evaluation of glossaries and dictionaries of Ulster English and Ulster-Scots.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Linguistic History of Ulster'. <www.bbc.co/history/war/plantation/ulsterscots/index.shtml> 2002. Examines the coming of Lowland Scots speech to Ulster during the plantation of the early 17th century and its roles in the province over the past four centuries.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Linguistic Value of Ulster Emigrant Letters', Ulster Folklife 41 (1995), 26-41. Shows how letters from less literate emigrants to America can not only help researchers reconstruct the Ulster influence on American English but also provide valuable insights to Ulster speech in the 18th and 19th century.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Making the Trans-Atlantic Link between Varieties of English: the Case of Plural Verbal -s', Journal of English Linguistics 25 (1997), 122-141. Examines constraints on the concord of subjects and verbs to trace the transplantation of grammar from Scotland to Ulster to Appalachia.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Many Faces of the Scotch-Irish', Familia 16 (2000), 24-40. Examines six Ulster and American views of the history and culture of Ulster emigrants and their descendants found in popular and scholarly literature; says that linguistic evidence may explain and resolve why these views differ so dramatically.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Multiple Modals in LAGS and LAMSAS', in Michael B. Montgomery and Thomas E. Nunnally (eds.), From the Gulf States and Beyond: The Legacy of Lee Pederson and LAGS (Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 1998), 90-122. Finds that parts of the United States where constructions like might could occur are predominantly those settled heavily by emigrants from Ulster and infers a historical linguistic connection between the two regions.

Montgomery, Michael, 'On the Trail of Early Ulster Emigrant Letters', in Patrick Fitzgerald and Steve Ickringill (eds.), Atlantic Crossroads: Historical Connections between Scotland, Ulster and North America (Newtownards, Colourpoint, 2001), 13-26, 133-137. Recounts the author's quest for colloquial documents from the 18th century useful to reconstruct the speech patterns brought by Ulster emigrants to America; presents the results of his search, especially two versions of a spoof emigrant letter whose authorship, historical context and language patterns he discusses.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Position of Ulster Scots', Ulster Folklife 45 (1999), 86-107. Places Ulster-Scots within the broad historical and demographic context of languages in Ireland and surveys increasing interest in it over the past decade, especially with regard to the debate on its status; sets out research needs and prospects.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Problem of Persistence: Ulster-American Missing Links', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 1 (2000), 105-119. Examines continuity of cultural patterns and studies persistence of language as evidenced in the Ulster-Scots poems of David Bruce of Pennsylvania (c1760-1830) and Robert Dinsmoor of New Hampshire (1757-1836) written in America.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Rediscovery of the Ulster-Scots Language', in Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Englishes around the World, Volume 1: General Studies, British Isles, North America: Studies in Honour of Manfred Görlach (Amsterdam, Benjamins, 1997), 211-226. Presents background to Ulster-Scots and its literature and discusses the recent revival of interest in them.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Robert Dinsmoor: Another Ulster-Scots-American Poet', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 6 (1998), 50-54. On a New Hampshire poet of Ulster ancestry who wrote verse in Scots in the latter half of the 18th century, with excerpts of his work.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Roots of Appalachian English', in Alan R. Thomas (ed.), Methods in Dialectology: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Held at the University College of North Wales, 3rd-7th August 1987 (Multilingual Matters 48), (Clevedon, Multilingual Matters, 1988), 480-491. Outlines a systematic investigation to determine the influence of Scottish and Ulster emigrants on 'the language of the Scotch-Irish'.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Roots of Appalachian English: Scotch-Irish or British Southern?', Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association 3 (1991), 177-191. Cites research by folklorists and historians into the antecedents of Appalachian culture and posits reasons why research by linguists has by contrast lagged; outlines a major project to redress this issue and presents preliminary findings for features of grammar that compare the input to American English from England as opposed to that from Scotland and Ulster.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Scotch-Irish Influence on Appalachian English: How Broad? How Deep?', in H. Tyler Blethen and Curtis W. Wood Jr. (eds.), Ulster and North America: Transatlantic Perspectives on the Scotch-Irish (Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 1997), 189-212. Reviews commentary on Scottish and Irish elements in Appalachian speech and presents results of the author's research on grammar that shows it has more Scotch-Irish than Elizabethan influence; classifies these elements according to whether they represent retentions, modifications, or other processes.

Montgomery, Michael, 'The Scots Language Abroad', in John Corbett et al. (eds.), Edinburgh Companion to Scots (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2003), 233-250. Summarises the linguistic elements of Scots taken by settlers to Ulster, the United States, Canada and Australasia and contributed to regional and national varieties there.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Solving Kurath's Puzzle: Establishing the Antecedents of the American Midland Dialect Region', in Raymond Hickey (ed.), The Legacy of Colonial English: The Study of Transported Dialects (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004), 410-425. Argues that Kurath's failure to confirm a significant Ulster element in American English, which he posited in 1928 and pursued for two decades, was due to the type of material used by Kurath, who focused on pronunciation and vocabulary rather than grammar.

Montgomery, Michael, 'A Tale of Two Georges: the Language of Irish Indian Traders in Colonial North America', in Jeffrey Kallen (ed.), Focus on Ireland (Amsterdam, Benjamins, 1997), 227-254. Discusses the documentary and analytical challenges facing the tracing of features of colonial American English to Ireland and develops a typology of three kinds of semi-literate writers to meet these challenges; analyses five features in the letters of two emigrants from Ireland who became traders with American Indians in the colonial interior in the mid-18th century.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Trans-Atlantic Connections for Variable Grammatical Features', Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 7 (2001), 205-224. Identifies caveats and principles for reconstructing the transplantation of language varieties across the Atlantic and the appropriate historical data for doing so, with application to the language of Scottish and Ulster emigrants in the 18th century; focuses in particular on variation in the use of was and were with plural subjects.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Ulster Scots: a Language of Scotch-Irish Emigrants', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 2 (2001), 125-137. Sets out five areas of scholarly consensus on Ulster-Scots within the context of the language of early Ulster emigrants.

Montgomery, Michael, 'Ulster Scots: Lost or Submerged?', in William Kelly and John R. Young (eds.), Ulster and Scotland 1600-2000: History, Language and Identity (Dublin, Four Courts, 2004), 121-132. Argues that the disappearance of Scots from early-17th-century documents in Ulster implies little, if anything, about its loss of vitality as a spoken medium, as evidenced by popular literature written in Ulster-Scots in succeeding centuries.

Montgomery, Michael, 'What is Ulster-Scots?', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 8 (2001), 15-23. Reprinted in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 121-130. Abbreviated at <www.ulsterscotsagency.com/WhatisUlster-Scots.asp>. Presents five areas of scholarly consensus on the present condition of Ulster-Scots.

Montgomery, Michael, and Janet M. Fuller, 'What was Verbal -s in 19th-Century African-American English?' in Edgar W. Schneider (ed.), Focus on the USA (Amsterdam, Benjamins, 1997), 211-30. Examines four non-standard uses of the -s suffix on verbs in Scotland and Ulster and posits that Ulster emigrants brought at least three of them to America and contributed them to African American English.

Montgomery, Michael, Janet M. Fuller and Sharon DeMarse, 'The Black Men has Wives and Sweet Harts [and Third Person Plural -s] jest like the White Men': Evidence for Verbal -s from Written Documents on Nineteenth-Century African American Speech', Language Variation and Change 5 (1993), 335-354. Finds detailed parallels in subject-verb concord between the language of Ulster emigrants and African Americans in the American South in the mid-19th century and concludes that the latter must have learned them through contact with the former.

Montgomery, Michael, and Robert J. Gregg, 'The Scots Language in Ulster', in Charles Jones (ed.), The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1997), 569-622. Systematic study of the history of Ulster-Scots, including coverage of its demography, documentary history from the 17th to the 19th century, poetic traditions, affiliations and influences, relationship to Lowland Scots and to Ulster English, influence of Irish Gaelic, regional and social variation, pronunciation, grammar, recent developments and needs for research.

Montgomery, Michael, and John M. Kirk, 'The Origin of the Habitual Verb be in American Black English: Irish or English or What?' Belfast Working Papers in Linguistics 11 (1996), 308-333. Argues that the striking parallels in the habitual use of the verb be (and bes) in Ulster-Scots and Ulster English on the one hand and African American English on the other is the result of independent development rather than historical inheritance, in contrast to what has been proposed by other researchers.

Montgomery, Michael, and John M. Kirk, ‘ “My Mother, Whenever She Passed Away, She had Pneumonia”: the History and Function of Punctual whenever’, Journal of English Linguistics 29 (2001), 234-249. Examines the uses of whenever (especially to express a single event that took place in the past) in Ulster and America and argues for a direct historical connection between them.

Montgomery, Michael, and Margaret Mishoe, 'The Pragmatics of Multiple Modals in North and South Carolina', American Speech 69 (1994), 3-29. Identifies similar verbal constructions like might could in Scotland, Ulster, and the American South and postulates a historical connection between them.

Montgomery, Michael, and Stephen J. Nagle, 'Double Modals in Scotland and the Southern United States: Trans-Atlantic Inheritance or Independent Development?' Folia Linguistica Historica 14 (1994), 91-107. Examines and assesses arguments for whether constructions like might could were brought from Ulster and Scotland or developed independently in the United States.

Montgomery, Michael, and Philip Robinson, 'Ulster: a Linguistic Bridge to North America', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 1 (2000), 40-60. Revised as the following item.

Montgomery, Michael, and Philip Robinson, 'Ulster English as Janus: Language Contact across the Irish Sea and across the North Atlantic', in P. Sture Ureland and Iain Clarkson (eds.), Language Contact across the North Atlantic: Proceedings of the Working Groups Held at University College, Galway (Ireland), August 29-September 3, 1992 and the University of Göteborg (Sweden), August 16-21, 1993 (Tübingen, Niemeyer, 1996), 411-426. Revised as Montgomery and Robinson 2000. Examines features of English and Scots speech in Ulster in the 17th century and studies in detail two features which later entered American speech.

Montgomery, Michael, and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003). Revision of items from Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots, published in anthology format.

Mooney, Martin, 'Up to His Neck in the World', Fortnight 401 (February 2002), 24-26. Reviews new edition of Burns' collected poetry and argues that in spirit it is the opposite of that being produced by the modern Ulster-Scots movement, which claims him as an inspiration.

Morgan, Michael, 'Dinosaurs and Frankensteins', Fortnight 388 (November 2000), 14-15. Argues that the recognition of Ulster Scots is the result of political correctness.

Muhr, Kay, 'Ulster Place-Name Links between Gaelic, English and Scots, Starting with Kill', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language Links: the Languages of Scotland and Ireland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 2), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 257-272. Includes names with the initial elements Kil- and Kirk- in Ulster-Scots areas.

Newlin, Claude, 'Dialects on the Western Pennsylvania Frontier', American Speech 4 (1928), 104-110. Cites evidence that Ulster speech patterns were brought to Pennsylvania and preserved in the late 18th and early 19th century.

Nic Craith, Máiread, 'Contested Identities and the Quest for Legitimacy', Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 21 (2000), 399-413. Examines how supporters of Ulster-Scots (pp. 408-411) and other minority European languages seek 'vertical' legitimacy or affirmation (i.e. status) and 'horizontal' legitimacy or affirmation (i.e. usage) for them; claims that supporters of Ulster-Scots 'are generally contained within the cultural wing of Northern Ireland loyalism'.

Nic Craith, Máiread, 'Politicised Linguistic Consciousness: the Case of Ulster-Scots', Nations and Nationalism 7 (2001), 21-37. Claims that 'promoters of Ulster-Scots are contained almost entirely within the cultural wing of loyalism' and that efforts to assert its status as a language are divisive and motivated by rivalry with the Irish-language movement and ultimately by aspirations for political independence for Northern Ireland.

Nic Craith, Máiread, 'The Process of "Cruthinitude"' in her Plural Identities, Singular Narratives: the Case of Northern Ireland (Oxford, Berghahn, 2002), 93-113. Examines the use of myth and ideology in the promotion of an Ulster-Scots cultural and linguistic identity.

Nic Craith, Máiread, Culture and Identity Politics in Northern Ireland (Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), x + 232 pp. Says that Ulster-Scots has been used to construct an ethnic identity to rival that of Irish and has become a tool in the identity politics of Northern Ireland.

O'Farrell, John, 'The Language Game', Fortnight 393 (March 1999), 15-16. Details political negotiations that created the North/South Language Implementation Body (as a result of the Belfast Agreement) and says that its establishment means that the Irish Government has formally acknowledged Ulster-Scots as the third official language of the Republic and that this move endangers the future of support for Irish by creating a funding formula for Irish that is subject to the whims of Unionist politicians in Northern Ireland.

O'Kane, William, You don't Say?: the Tyrone Crystal Book of Ulster Dialect (Dungannon, Irish World, 1991), xiii + 161 pp. Offers 'a selection of words used throughout the northern part of Ireland, together with examples of their meanings, usage and, where possible, their derivation'; many items have Lowland Scots ancestry.

Ó Muirithe, Diarmaid, 'Ulster-Scots Dialect', in Brian Lalor and Frank McCourt (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ireland (Dublin, 2003), 1092. A brief note.

'One Who Listens' (Rev. McMordie), Our Ulster Accent and Ulster Provincialisms (Belfast, 1897), 77 pp. Manual of local usages and solecisms to be avoided in educated use of language.

'On the Road', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 3 (1995), 22-24. A 'speculative' new vocabulary on the theme of travel, towns and traffic.

Ó Riagáin, Dónall, 'Language Rights/Human Rights in Northern Ireland and the Role of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds. ), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 43-54. ' Says that the United Kingdom's signing of the Charter 'necessitates a dramatic shift in public perception in linguistic diversity in Northern Ireland'.

Orr, James, The Country Rhymes of James Orr, the Bard of Ballycarry, 1770-1816 (Folk Poets of Ulster Series 2, with an introduction by Philip Robinson), (Bangor, Pretani, 1992), xxxi +119 pp. Compilation of the Ulster-Scots verse by the southeast Antrim poet.

'The Oul Leid', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 5 (1997), 51-52. Transcription of a 1627 letter by James Hamilton of Bangor to Archibald Edmonstone of Ballycarry that displays many elements of Scots grammar and orthography.

Parsley, Ian J, 'Authenticity of Scots', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 181-185. Argues that the main issues for standardising Scots are acceptability and authenticity, rather than correctness, and shows how these are embodied in different ways and to different degrees in five sample translations of a short English text into Ulster-Scots.

[Parsley, Ian James] 'An Introduction to Ulster Scots Speech and Literature', <www.ianjamesparsley.net/ullans_int.html>. Overview of Ulster-Scots in form of questions and answers (e.g. 'What is Ulster-Scots?', 'Where does Ulster-Scots Come from?', etc.)

Parsley, Ian J., 'Language, Discrimination and the Good Friday Agreement: the Case of Ulster-Scots', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language and Politics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 1), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2000), 89-90. Brief comment on issues of language discrimination in relation to the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement.

Parsley, Ian J., 'Towards a Strategy for Scots', Black Mountain Review 10 (2004), 85-87. Criticises the contemporary Ulster-Scots language movement for claiming discrimination and lack of funding rather than asking realistic questions or providing 'honest answers' about Ulster-Scots and its development.

Parsley, Ian J., 'Twa Ulster-Scotses: Authentic versus Synthetic' in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Language Planning and Education: Linguistic Issues in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 6), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2002), 183-185. Cites pros and cons of two models for translating Ulster-Scots.

Parsley, Ian J., 'Ulster-Scots: Politicisation or Survival', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 177-180. Argues that activists in the Ulster-Scots movement advocate a written version that is counter-productive to the survival of the language [written in Scots].

Parsley, Ian J., 'Wad the Ulster-Scots Tongue Richtlie be Gan Foreairt?', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Towards Our Goals in Broadcasting, the Press, the Performing Arts and the Economy: Minority Languages in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 10), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 211-212. Editorial expressing pessimism over the future of Ulster-Scots and efforts to assist its development [written in Scots].

Patterson, David, The Provincialisms of Belfast and the Surrounding Districts Pointed Out and Corrected; to Which is Added an Essay on Mutual Improvement Societies (Belfast, Mayne, 1860), 28 pp. Shows that in some respects the pronunciation of vowels in Belfast was closer to Antrim Ulster-Scots in the mid-19th century than it was a century later.

Patterson, William Hugh, A Glossary of Words in Use in the Counties of Antrim and Down (London, Trübner for the English Dialect Society, 1880), xi + 118 pp. Comprehensive early glossary of local speech, with many quotations illustrating use and a brief essay on settlement history of the two counties; the foundational study of Ulster-Scots vocabulary.

Pepper, John, Catch Yourself on! (Belfast, Blackstaff, 1980), 39-41. Comments on Ballymena usages.

Pepper, John, Ulster-English Dictionary (Belfast, Blackstaff, 1981), 88 pp. Popular dictionary of Ulster colloquialisms containing some terms of Scots extraction.

'Place-Name Scraps', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 3 (1995), 30. On the origin of 'Gregstown', a townland near Newtownards in the Ards Peninsula.

Policansky, Linda, 'Grammatical Variation in Belfast English', Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 6 (1981), 37-66. Examines variation in verbal concord, relative pronouns, and whenever vs. when in Belfast English for four groups of speakers having different levels of education.

Polley, David, 'Ulster-Scots as Manifest in Place Names', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 7 (1999), 80-81. Reprinted in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 93-95. Brief introduction to the different types of official and popular Ulster-Scots place names; stresses the value of such names for understanding traditions in Northern Ireland.

Polley, David, 'Ulster Scots: Naming Places', Dublin, 2000 (University of Dublin M.Litt. dissertation).

Porter, Hugh (edited and with an introduction by Amber Adams and J. R. R. Adams), The Country Rhymes of Hugh Porter, the Bard of Moneyslane, Born c. 1780, Folk Poets of Ulster Series 1 (Bangor: Pretani, 1992), xxx + 132 pp. Compilation of the Ulster-Scots verse by the county Down poet (c1780-?).

Porter, Tom, 'Mourne View', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 2 (1994), 54. Narrative presentation of vocabulary items from fishing and farming.

Pritchard, Rosalind, 'Protestants and the Irish Identity: Historical Heritage and Current Attitudes', Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 25 (2004). Says that one way to counteract the increasing polarisation in Northern Ireland society is for Protestants to recognise the Irish language as part of their heritage, but that this has been made difficult both by the co-opting of the language revival movement by Irish nationalism and Catholicism and, paradoxically, by the recognition of Ulster-Scots by the Good Friday Agreement.

Radford, Katie, 'Creating an Ulster-Scots Revival', Peace Review 13, 1 (2001), 51-57. Discusses the dynamics and challenges facing the ideological development of the Ulster-Scots movement since the peace accords of 1998.

Reynolds, Lee, 'Licht no Keech', Fortnight 402 (2002), 22-23. Presents the tenets of the modern Ulster-Scots revival movement, which advocates the rights to cultural self-definition and multiple identities, and the validity of the three-tradition model that recognises three cultural traditions.

'Robert Huddleston and the Ulster-Scots Tongue', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 1 (1993), 10-11. On Huddleston's own view of his use of Ulster-Scots, from the county Down poet's unpublished papers.

Robinson, Mairi, et al., The Concise Scots Dictionary (Aberdeen, Aberdeen University Press, 1985), xli + 820 pp., maps. Reissued by Chambers, Edinburgh, 1992, and by Polygon, Edinburgh, 1999. Comprehensive dictionary of Scots, based mainly on the Scottish National Dictionary and the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue; gives meanings, pronunciation, etymology, dating and distribution; includes Ulster.

Robinson, Philip, 'Germanic Place-Names in East Ulster' in Howard B. Clarke, Jacinta Prunty and Mark Hennessy (eds.), Surveying Ireland's Past: Multidisciplinary Essays in Honour of Anngret Simms (Dublin, 2004), 281-296. Surveys place-names originating from Germanic languages up to and including Ulster-Scots.

Robinson, Philip, 'The Historical Presence of Ulster-Scots in Ireland', in Michael Cronin and Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin (eds.), The Languages of Ireland (Dublin, Four Courts, 2004), 112-126. Surveys documentary record for Ulster-Scots since the early 17th century.

Robinson, Philip, 'Jonathan Swift: His Early Writings in Ulster-Scots?', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 3 (1995), 37-48. Reproduces and comments on a letter in Ulster-Scots that appeared in American newspapers in the 1730s; speculates that the author 'J.S.' may in fact have been Jonathan Swift.

[Robinson, Philip], 'The Oul Leid: Quhat?', Kintra Sennicht 2 (Summer 1993), [3]. On the use of quh- in place of wh-, e.g. quhat for what.

[Robinson, Philip], 'The Oul Leid: Why no Y's?', Kintra Sennicht 3 (Winter 1993), [3-4]. On the letters thorn, yogh (surviving as y and z) and the Scots preference for final -ie rather than -y.

Robinson, Philip, 'The Scots Language in Seventeenth-Century Ulster', Ulster Folklife 35 (1989), 86-99. From period documents finds that written Scots as a medium declined in Ulster in the 17th century, but infers that it continued as a spoken language.

Robinson, Philip, 'Some Belfast Place Names, 1712-1736', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 4 (1996), 32-36. Extracts and lists the names (along with their variant spellings) of streets, buildings, etc. from the Funeral Register of First Belfast Presbyterian Church of the early 18th century.

Robinson, Philip, 'A Test for Ulster-Scots', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 6 (1998), 46-47. Reprinted in Michael Montgomery and Anne Smyth (eds.), A Blad o Ulstèr-Scotch frae Ullans: Ulster-Scots Culture, Language and Literature (Belfast, Ullans Press, 2003), 87-90. List of 67 vocabulary items (in standard English, Ulster English dialect and Ulster-Scots) useful for the identifying the 'markers' of Ulster-Scots speech.

Robinson, Philip, Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language (Belfast, Ullans, 1997), x + 229 pp. The first grammar of Ulster-Scots, a comprehensive and systematic study with numerous examples from literary sources from four centuries.

Robinson, Philip, 'The Use of the Term "Clachan" in Ulster', Ulster Folklife 37 (1991), 30-35. Concludes that the term had 'been introduced into Ulster by seventeenth-century Scots settlers who had already absorbed the word from Scots Gaelic'.

Robinson, Philip, 'William Starrat of Strabane: the First Ulster-Scots Poet', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 5 (1997), 30-39. Discusses and reproduces the verse of a Tyrone schoolmaster who engaged in a poetic exchange with Allan Ramsay in Scots.

Rooney, Edward, 'Language Policy Implementation: a DCAL Civil Servant's Perspective', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Linguistic Politics: Language Policies for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 3), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2001), 55-60. Surveys developments in official language policies for Irish and Ulster-Scots in Northern Ireland and key issues in implementing such policies.

Scottish National Dictionary. See Dictionary of the Scots Language.

Skea, Margaret, 'Change and Variation in the Lexicon of a Non-Standard Dialect: a Sociolinguistic Study of Dialect Semantics in North Down', Jordanstown, 1982 (Ulster Polytechnic Ph.D. thesis). Examines traditional Ulster-Scots vocabulary in five north county Down communities across four generations of speakers and finds that general diminution in the comprehension of this vocabulary has been taking place and that denotations of individual items have changed or been lost.

Skillen, Joseph, 'Notes, Archaeological and Otherwise, from the Poems of David Herbison, 1800-1880', Irish Naturalists' Journal 1 (1926), 162-163. Brief note, largely on the absence of references to folklore in Herbison's poems.

Smyth, Anne, 'Daein Redactor fur Ullans/Editing Ullans Magazine', Black Mountain Review 10 (2004), 93-99. Discusses the policies and practice of editing Ullans, the annual magazine of the Ulster-Scots Language Society.

Smyth, Anne, 'Swimming against the Tide', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 9/10 (2004), 71-73. Discusses words that originated in Scots and Ulster-Scots and then entered Standard English.

Smyth, Anne, and Michael Montgomery, 'The Ulster-Scots Academy' in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Legislation, Literature and Sociolinguistics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 13), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2005), 60-64. Reprinted in Review of Scottish Culture 2004/05. Discusses the background and the main projects of the Ulster-Scots Academy, founded in 1994.

Spurr, Chris, 'The BBC Northern Ireland Ulster-Scots Unit', in John M. Kirk and Dónall P. Ó Baoill (eds.), Towards our Goals in Broadcasting, the Press, the Performing Arts and the Economy: Minority Languages in Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland (Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics 10), (Belfast, Queen's University Belfast, 2003), 40-46. Discusses the radio service's policies toward broadcasting in Ulster-Scots and development of programming in Ulster-Scots since 2002, especially with reference to A Kist o Wurds, a radio magazine.

Stapleton, Karyn and John Wilson, 'A Discursive Approach to Cultural Identity: The Case of Ulster Scots', Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 16 (2003), 57-71. Proposes a framework for exploring how self-identified Ulster-Scots use stories and opinions to articulate their communal identity.

Stapleton, Karyn and John Wilson, 'Ulster Scots Identity and Culture: The Missing Voice(s)', Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 11 (2004), 563-591. Based on interviews with grassroots-level people who self-identify as Ulster-Scots, analyses how they use historical and other narratives to construct personal and communal identity as Ulster-Scots.

Tagliamonte, Sali, and Jennifer Smith, '"Either It isn't or It's not": Neg/Aux Contraction in British Dialects', English World-Wide 23 (2001), 251-281. Examines patterns of contraction in eight varieties in the United Kingdom, including Cullybackey in county Antrim; finds no significant difference from north to south.

Tagliamonte, Sali, Jennifer Smith and Helen Lawrence, 'No Taming the Vernacular! Insights from the Relatives in Northern Britain', Language Variation and Change 17 (2005), 75-112. Compares patterning of relative pronouns in four communities in northwestern England, southwestern Scotland, and Northern Ireland, including Cullybackey and Portavogie; finds fundamental similarities between all four in their avoidance of who and which and the prevalence of that and zero ('There were a boy in Ballyclare told me this').

Thompson, Mark, 'Signs of Encouragement: Ulster-Scots Street Signs in the Ards', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 7 (1999), 17-21. Photographs and brief essay on bilingual Ulster-Scots/English signage in east county Down.

Thomson, Samuel, The Country Rhymes of Samuel Thomson, the Bard of Carngranny, 1766-1816 (Folk Poets of Ulster Series 3), with an introduction by Ernest McA. Scott and Philip Robinson (Bangor, Pretani, 1992), xxxi + 123 pp. Compilation of the Ulster-Scots verse by the southeast Antrim poet.

Todd, J. Andrew, 'The Life and Work of Rev W. F. Marshall', Ullans: The Magazine for Ulster-Scots 4 (1996), 51-56. Biographical appreciation of the county Tyrone minister and poet.

Todd, Loreto, Green English: Ireland's Influence on the English Language (Dublin, O'Brien, 1999), 176 pp. Contains short sections on the pronunciation and grammar of Ulster-Scots and its use in literature by such writers as W. G. Lyttle and G. Savage-Armstrong.

Todd, Loreto, The Language of Irish Literature (New York, St. Martin's, 1989), xvi +193 pp. Summarises features of Ulster-Scots (pp. 29-32) and makes occasional reference to its use in literary texts.

Todd, Loreto, 'Ulster Scots', in Tom McArthur (ed.), Oxford Companion to the English Language (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992), 1087-1088. Capsule account of major features of Ulster-Scots, with comments on its affiliation with Lowland Scots and its social variation.

Todd, Loreto, Words Apart: a Dictionary of Northern Ireland English (Gerrards Cross, Smythe, 1990), xv + 260 pp. Bilingual dictionary of 'Northern Ireland English' and English, with many forms cross-referenced to Scotland; includes introductory comments on Ulster-Scots and selected texts by Savage-Armstrong, Lynn and Lyttle.

Traynor, Michael (ed.), The English Dialect of Donegal: a Glossary Incorporating the Collections of H. C. Hart, etc. (Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 1953), xxiv + 335 pp. Comprehensive dictionary based on citations from local literature and correspondents as well as the collections of Hart; for most items uses broad phonetic transcription and cross-references material to the Oxford English Dictionary, English Dialect Dictionary and other sources.

Ulster-Scots Language Society, The Ulster-Scots Language: a Submission to the Forum by the Ulster-Scots Language Society and the Ulster-Scots Academy (Belfast, 1996). Quasi-published report to the Political Forum setting out the history, status, resources and needs of the language, with proposals for its support at the level of tertiary education.

Walker, Brian M., 'Country Letters: Some Correspondence of Ulster Poets of the Nineteenth Century', in John Gray and Wesley McCann (eds.), An Uncommon Bookman: Essays in Memory of J. R. R. Adams (Belfast, Linen Hall Library, 1996), 119-139. Transcribes and discusses letters by Rhyming Weaver poets, many to John Rea Semple, now in the Sentry Hill archive in the Linen Hall Library.

Walsh, Patrick, 'In Search of the Rhyming Weavers', Causeway 3, 4 (Winter 1996), 40-44. Argues that John Hewitt's Presbyterian and Ulster-Scots circumscription of the Rhyming Weavers presents a limited and distorted view of the poetry of the time.

Weaver, Jack, 'Robert Huddleston: Ulster Example of (American) Scotch-Irish Mountaineer?', Journal of Scotch-Irish Studies 1, 1 (2000), 98-104. Identifies similarities between the life and poetic work of the county Down poet and the Appalachian culture in which the author was reared.

Wilson, John, and Karyn Stapleton, 'Nation-State, Devolution and the Parliamentary Discourse of Minority Languages', Journal of Language and Politics 2 (2004), 5-30. Considers the status and rights claimed for and assigned to Ulster-Scots and Irish in the Northern Ireland Assembly; explores how Unionists are conflicted between supporting English and Ulster-Scots and how they advocate Ulster-Scots as a counter-protest to Irish, thus arguing that the debate over the status of Ulster-Scots is a political rather than a linguistic one.