The battle-axe (tuag or tuagh, pron. tooa) has been in use from prehistoric times in Ireland; as is evident from the fact that numerous axe-heads of stone, as well as of bronze, copper and iron, have been found from time to time, and are to be seen in hundreds in the National Museum and elsewhere. These are now commonly called celts, of which the illustrations on last page will give a good idea.
FIGS. 20 & 21. Two types of metallic celts or early battle-axes. (From Wilde's Catalogue).
In later times the Irish were noted for their fatal dexterity with the battle-axe.
FIGS. 22 & 23. To show how metallic celts or axe-heads were fastened on handles. Fig. 23 shows one found in its original handle, as seen in the illustration. It has a loop underneath, which is partly eaten away by rust. Fig. 22 is a conjectural restoration of the fastening of this kind of celt. (From Wilde's Catalogue).
Giraldus mentions that among other weapons they had a heavy axe excellently well wrought and tempered; and he goes on to say:—"They make use of but one hand to the axe when they strike, and extend the thumb along the handle to guide the blow: from which neither the crested helmet can defend the head, nor the iron folds of the armour the rest of the body. From whence it has happened, even in our times, that the whole thigh of a soldier, though cased in well-tempered armour, hath been lopped off by a single blow of the axe."
There were two kinds of battle-axes: a broad one, generally used by galloglasses, and a long, narrow one, called a sparra or sparth: examples of both are illustrated in figures 24 and 25. The narrow axe seems to have been the earlier form.
FIG. 25. Two galloglasses depicted on a map of Ireland of 1567: showing the broad battle-axe. One of the two galloglasses in fig. 29 below holds a broad axe.
Charlotte Milligan Fox, sister of the poet Alice Milligan, was a founding member of the Irish Folk Song Society and an indefatigable field collector of Irish traditional music. Her singularly important work on Irish haprers is here presented for the twenty-first century reader. This edition of Annals offers a much greater number of illustrations than were included in the original 1911 publication, a full biographical introduction, an extensive bibliography of the writings of Milligan Fox and an appendix discussing the variant texts of Arthur O’Neills Memoirs.
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