SCOTCH AND IRISH SEEDS IN AMERICAN SOIL

THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE SCOTCH AND IRISH CHURCHES, AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF AMERICA

By Rev. J. G. Craighead

1878

CONTENTS

Preface

HISTORY OF THE SCOTCH CHURCH

Chapter I.

FROM THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY TO THE ACT OF PARLIAMENT, 1592, RATIFYING THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF SCOTLAND

Characteristics of Scotch Presbyterianism--Its three cardinal principles--Introduction of Christianity--The pope asserting his supremacy--Obstacles to the Reformation--Defenders of the gospel--Patrick Hamilton--The first martyr--Effects of his death--Many embrace the doctrines preached--Persecutions by Cardinal Beaton--George Wishart--His preaching and martyrdom--Beaton's retributive death--Warning unheeded by his successor--Death of Walter Mill--The first Covenant adopted at Edinburgh--Its provisions--Conflict between the queen and Reformers--John Knox--His great influence--Protestant nobility meet at Perth--Duplicity of the queen--Reformers increase--Knox at St. Andrews--Meeting of a free Parliament--Petition of Protestants--First Confession of Faith--Necessity of a national ecclesiastical organization--The first General Assembly--Book of Discipline--Its provisions--Two objects secured--Superintendents--Tulchan bishops--Queen Mary's return to Scotland--Efforts to restore popery--Her measures resisted--Knox's successful opposition--The Church prosperous--Opposition of the queen and regent Morton--Andrew Melville returns to Scotland--Chief opponent of Morton--A commission reports a system of ecclesiastical polity--Second Book of Discipline--Its provisions--Conflict of the Assembly with King James and his Parliament--Remon-strance presented to the king by Melville--Black Acts of Parliament--Clergy obliged to fly--Patriotism and good conduct of Presbyterians--Secures more favor from the king--His eulogy on the Church of Scotland--Parliament ratifies the Constitution of the Church

Chapter II.

FROM THE CHARTER OF THE CHURCH TO THE RENEWAL OF THE NATIONAL COVENANT

Bad faith of James--Conspiracy of popish earls--The danger averted--Two of the conspirators excommunicated--Roman Catholic earls; their proposed recall--Melville confronts the king--Deceitful conduct of the king--Assaults the Church--King claims absolute power--Resistance by Presbyterians--Ministers of Edinburgh expelled--The corrupt Assembly at Perth--Advisory council for the king--The Church represented in Parliament--Prelacy triumphant--Three ministers made bishops--Aberdeen Assembly the last free one--Clergy banished--Melville summoned to London and banished--Bishops appointed permanent moderators of Assembly--Their civil jurisdiction restored--Court of High Commission--The king visits Scotland--New Confession of Faith--Five Articles of Perth ratified--Constitution of the Church subverted--Persecutions by Court of High Commission--Ministers banished--Congregations left without ordinances--Death of King James--Charles I. adopts his father's policy--Great revival of religion--Book of Canons and Liturgy prepared--Riot at Edinburgh at its introduction--The kingdom aroused--People flock to Edinburgh--The National Covenant enthusiastically renewed--THE SECOND REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND

Chapter III.

FROM SUBSCRIBING THE COVENANT TO THE RESTORATION OF CHARLES II.

Despair of prelates, and the defeat of their schemes--Deputations sent to the king--He tries to negotiate with the Covenanters--Failure of Hamilton, the king's commissioner--Concessions made--General Assembly at Glasgow--Efforts of Hamilton--The Assembly triumphs--The whole fabric of prelacy swept away--Vital principles vindicated--King enraged, and prepares for war--Preparations of Presbyterians--They march to Dunse Law--The king hesitates, and accedes to articles of peace--The peace a brief one--War again determined upon--Covenanters march to the Tweed--Treaty of Ripon--Petitions to Parliament for uniformity of worship in the two kingdoms--Action of the Assembly--The Covenanters join their English brethren--The Solemn League and Covenant--The Westminster Assembly of Divines--Importance of their work--Difficulties--Uniformity not secured--The General Assembly ratifies the Confession of Faith of the Westminster divines--Presbyterian system long unmolested

Chapter IV.

FROM THE RESTORATION OF CHARLES II. TO HIS DEATH, IN 1685

Restoration of Charles II.--No guarantees exacted--A council of state favors prelacy--The illegal Parliament of 1661--Their despotic acts--Purpose to destroy the Church--Marquis of Argyle and Guthrie executed--The king, by proclamation, restores prelacy--Four bishops consecrated--Only Episcopalians allowed to preach and teach--Act of Glasgow--Four hundred ministers banished--Field-meetings--Bishop's drag-net--Court of High Commission again erected--Curate spies--Persecution--James Turner and his "lambs"--Cruelty of the soldiers--The rising of Pentland--Covenanters dispersed--Death of Hugh McKail--Soldiers instigated to cruelty by the curates and Archbishop Sharp--His death--The persecuted on the defensive--Battle of Drumclog--Dissensions--Battle of Bothwell Bridge--Terrible cruelties--Deaths of Cameron, Cargill and Hackson--The Test Act--Proceedings against the earl of Argyle--Further persecutions--Resistance of the persecuted--Their declaration--The Bloody Act--Death of Charles II.

Chapter V.

FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES VII. TO THE EMIGRATION OF PRESBYTERIANS TO AMERICA

Accession of James VII.--Proceedings of the new Parliament--The king's schemes to restore popery--Attempt of Argyle--Capture and death--Presbyterians persecuted and banished--Parliament will not yield to the king--Passes three acts of indulgence--Clergy return to Scotland--Strict Covenanters reject the king's acts--Death of Renwick--Landing of Prince of Orange--The Revolution--Ineffectual attempts to introduce Episcopacy in Scotland--The system a nondescript Church--Slavish and persecuting--Covenanters refuse to fellowship prelacy--Meeting of Parliament--Abolishes the prelatic Church--Ratifies the Confession of Faith and establishes the Presbyterian Church--Patronage done away--Meeting of the General Assembly--Desire of the king that all Protestants unite in same church government--Origin of moderate party--The Revolution settlement a calamity--Connection between religious and civil liberty--The principles contended for in Scotland--Dear to them--Brought to America--Element of power in the Presbyterian Church in America

HISTORY OF THE IRISH CHURCH

Chapter VI.

FROM THE INTRODUCTION OF THE REFORMED RELIGION IN IRELAND TO THE GREAT REVIVAL OF 1625

American Presbyterian Church indebted to the Irish--Gospel introduced in Ireland in second century--Irish Church independent until twelfth century--Then subjected to pope--Remained subject three hundred years--Deplorable condition of the people--Henry VIII. asserts supremacy--George Brown made archbishop of Dublin--Opposition of Romish clergy--Edward VI.--Resistance to the liturgy--English ministers unwilling to occupy Irish sees--Bishop Bale--His firmness--Queen Mary--Elizabeth--Ireland a place of shelter for Protestants--Distracted state of country unfavorable to religion--Want of Reformed ministers--Description of the Irish Church--Dublin College established--Its purpose--Slow progress of the Reformation--Accession of James I.--His pacific and wise measures--Province of Ulster--Colonizing schemes--Prosperity of these plantations--Confession of faith for the Irish Church--Its liberal character--Efficiency of Scotch clergy--Price, Hubbard, Glendenning, Blair and Hamilton--Their reception by Bishop Echlin--Revival of religion--Many converts--Welsh, Stewart, Dunbar and Livingston come over from Scotland--Liberality of Bishop Knox--Labor of Scotch clergy greatly blessed--Presbyterian worship and discipline maintained--Romanists and Bishop Echlin oppose the revival--The latter persecute Blair and others--They appeal to Archbishop Usher--Restored--Again suspended--Apply in vain to the lord-deputy of Ireland

Chapter VII.

FROM THE ACCESSION OF CHARLES I. TO THE IRISH REBELLION

Romanism rather than the Reformed faith encouraged--Some Protestants think of emigrating to the New World--King needs funds for his Irish army--Concessions to Romanists--Protest of Irish prelates--Laud and Wentworth favor Roman ritual--Bramhall and Leslie promoted--Bedell--Alterations in Dublin University--Convocation of the clergy, 1634--Adopt the Thirty-nine Articles of the English Church--People deceived--High Commission court erected--Condition of Presbyterians deplorable--The four ministers that were restored again deposed--Death of Echlin--The bigot Leslie his successor--Suspends five ministers--Sailing of the Eagle Wing--Returns--Wentworth's persecutions--Many clergy fly to Scotland--Remain there--Discontent in Ulster alarms Wentworth--The BLACK OATH--Cruel imposition of it--Sufferings of the Presbyterians--Henry Stewart--Wentworth's cruel proceedings--Bishop Adair--Deposed--Opposed by Bishop Bedell--Wentworth created an earl--Raises an Irish army to suppress the people of Ulster--Opposition--Remonstrance sent to the king--Meeting of the Long Parliament--Earl of Strafford impeached imprisoned and beheaded--Presbyterians petition Parliament--Their requests granted--Change in administration--Two Puritan lords-justices appointed--High Commission court abolished--Peace in Ireland

Chapter VIII.

FROM THE IRISH INSURRECTION TO THE DEATH OF CHARLES I.

The rebellion incited by Romish priests--Object to destroy Protestantism--Plot discovered--Important towns saved from capture--Places of refuge--Rebels master of most of Ulster--Their cruelties--Universal massacre--Famine and pestilence--Sufferings of Protestant clergy--Death of Bishop Bedell--As many Presbyterians fled to Scotland, they suffered less than Episcopalians--Charles sends commissions to Irish Protestant leaders--Lords-justices furnish arms--English and Scotch Parliaments send relief--Arrival of regiments--Severe engagements--Insurrection subdued--Re-establishment of the Presbyterian Church--Ministers and people return from Scotland--Army chaplains--Presbytery revived--Congregations gathered--Petition to the Scotch Assembly--Ministers arrive from Scotland--The Church grows rapidly--Many Episcopalians join the Presbyterian Church--Giving evidence of repentance--Overruling Providence--Peaceful and prosperous state of the Church--Ecclesiastical reform in England--Westminster Assembly called--Commissioners sent to Scotland--Solemn League and Covenant--Taken in Ireland, Scotland and England--Its effects--Growth of the Church--Thirty settled ministers in 1647

FROM THE DEATH OF CHARLES TO THE ACCESSION OF JAMES II.

Ulster Presbyterians protest against his murder--Assent, under protest, to Cromwell's government--His judicious measures in Ireland--Baptist and Independent ministers--Parliament favors education and religion--Endowments and salaries--Engagement oath--Presbyterian clergy opposed--Oath enforced--Sufferings of ministers--Council of Independents and Presbyterians--A public debate--Change of Irish commissioners--Baptists in favor--Forcing Presbyterians to take the oath--Appeal to Fleetwood--Appear before the council--Dismissed with favor--Cromwell dissolves Parliament--His accession to power favorable to Presbyterians--Ministers allowed to pursue their calling--Danger from dissensions in Church of Scotland--Did not extend to Ulster--Increase of ministers--Presbytery divided--Church prosperous--Death of Cromwell--Charles II. restored--His efforts to restore prelacy--Bramhall and Leslie restored--Measures employed to crush out Presbyterianism--Proclamation against presbytery--Unavailing appeal to the Irish privy-council--Jeremy Taylor's intolerant spirit--Ejects thirty-six ministers from their churches--Their privations--Meeting of the Irish Parliament--Solemn League and Covenant burned--Duke of Ormond's leniency--Ministers for a time not molested--Blood's plot--Conspirators apprehended--Presbyterians not implicated--Leniency shown them--Ministers return from Scotland--Growth of the Church--Presbyteries again organized--Lord Robart's administration--Jealousy of Episcopal bishops and clergy--Boyle bishop of Down--Sir Arthur Forbes shields Presbyterians from persecution--Revival of religious worship--Regium Donum--Schools and a theological seminary established--Insurrection in Scotland--Injurious to Ulster Presbyterians--Ormond presses the oath of supremacy--Persecution--The prelates active persecutors--The condition of Presbyterians such they think of removing to America

FROM JAMES II. TO EMIGRATION OF PRESBYTERIANS TO AMERICA, 1725

James II.'s policy favors Romanists--Tyrconnel lord-deputy--Papists restored to power--Protestants depressed--Act of Toleration--Presbyterians enjoy a brief freedom--Calm followed by a storm--Alarm in Ulster--Council appointed--Tyrconnel's army seizes the principal towns--Gates of Derry and Enniskillen shut--The former a great barrier to James' army--Landing of Prince of Orange in England--Promises aid to Protestants in Ireland--Numerous battles--Siege of Derry--City relieved--Defence of Enniskillen--Retreat of the Irish army--King William leads his army--Battle of Boyne--Total defeat of Irish army--Different conduct of Episcopal and Presbyterian clergy--The king favors Presbyterians--Presbyterianism restored in Ulster--Presbyteries and synods again held--Losses by the war--Ulster Presbyterians hospitably received in Scotland--Jealousy of Irish bishops--King William secures the abolition of the oath of supremacy--Its effects--Meeting of the Irish Parliament--Act of Toleration defeated--Controversy of Bishop King with Boyse and Craighead--Results--Increased hostility of Episcopalians--Oppressive measures--Oath of abjuration--Sacramental test--Its effects--Futile efforts to obtain legal toleration--Half century of civil disabilities--Brief periods of relief--Still the Presbyterian Church grows--Two synods formed, and become a delegated body--An educated ministry--Missions--Church extended--Presbyterians excluded from office--Desire to emigrate to America--Causes which led to a large emigration of Ulster Presbyterians to America

EMIGRATION OF SCOTCH AND SCOTCH-IRISH

Chapter IX.

EMIGRATION TO AMERICA

Character of the Scotch emigrants--Causes which led to their emigration--The colonists in South Carolina--Virginia, Maryland and Delaware--North Carolina--Their sympathy for the Presbyterian Church--Scotch-Irish emigration--Causes--Religious bigotry, commercial jealousy and oppressive landlords--Emigration so great as to alarm the Irish magistrates--Reasons assigned by the magistrates for the emigration--Ports of entry--New England Presbyterians--Largest number came to Philadelphia--States in which they principally settled--Character of the colonists--Protestants and Presbyterians--Rapid growth of the Presbyterian Church--The emigrants retain their modes of worship and system of church government--The Catechism--Lord's Supper, how administered--Influence of this emigration on the Presbyterian Church in America

FOREIGN MINISTERS OF THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN AMERICA

Chapter X.

FOREIGN MINISTERS IN AMERICA

Larger number from Ireland--Difficulty to determine the nationality of some ministers--Francis Makemie the first minister--MacNish and Hampton his associates--Other clergymen from 1685 to 1715--William Tennent and his sons--Robert Cross--James Macgregor--Samuel Blair--Alexander Craighead--Francis Alison--John Elder--John Craig--Charles Beatty--Samuel Finley--Robert Smith--Other ministers previous to 1758--At union of synods nearly one-half of the clergy foreign-born--Formative period of the Church--Great indebtedness of the American Presbyterian Church to the Scotch and Irish churches

EARLY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Chapter XI.

PRESBYTERIANS AND EDUCATION

Presbyterians patrons of learning--Public schools in Scotland--Early provision for education in America--Action of the synod of the Carolinas--Numerous classical schools and academies--The Log College--Synod's school at New London--Fagg's Manor school--Nottingham academy--Classical academy at Pequa--Upper Buffalo academy--Schools at Elizabethtown, Pencader, Baskinridge, Mendham and Philadelphia--Schools in Virginia--At Guilford, Thyatira, Wilmington, Sugar Creek, Rocky Hill, Poplar Tent, Bethany, and Liberty Hall academy, North Carolina--Schools in Tennessee--Principal object of these to educate ministers--Higher educational institutions--College of New Jersey--Jefferson, Dickinson, Hampden-Sidney and Washington Colleges

PATRIOTISM OF PRESBYTERIANS

Chapter XII.

Essential principles of liberty--The creed of republics--The Scotch and Irish exiles foes to arbitrary power--Reasons why the latter distrusted England--Had governed Ireland for her own selfish ends--Would do the same with her American colonies--Friends of civil and religious freedom--Dread of Episcopal supremacy--Efforts to establish Episcopacy--Religious freedom sought--Civil and religious liberty inseparable--Presbyterians first to combine in resistance--Testimony of Mr. Adolphus--Union with New England against the Stamp law--Testimony of Messrs. Reed and Galloway--Action of Synod of New York and Philadelphia--North Carolina Presbyterians and Mecklenburg Declaration--Presbyterians of Western Pennsylvania--Memorial from Cumberland county, Pa.--Action of Hanover presbytery, Virginia--Presbyterian ministers active and earnest patriots--Efficient as statesmen, soldiers, chaplains, etc.--Dr. Witherspoon's services and other ministry--Patriotism of elders and members of the Presbyterian Church--Many of them officers--Worthy of their lineage--Presbyterians in the civil service--Introduced elements of their system into the government--Proper founders of new States--Not anarchists--Favored constitutional freedom--Church and State separate--Prized their principles--Ready to defend them at every sacrifice

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