PREFACE

From Irish Pedigrees; or the Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation by John O'Hart

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In this Edition we have inserted all the Genealogies contained in the Third Edition of Irish Pedigrees, as well as those given in our Irish Landed Gentry when Cromwell came to Ireland; and, wherever we could do so, we have given a description of the Armorial Bearings [1] of each family whose genealogy we have traced.

From the large quantity of additional matter collected therefor, this Edition became so voluminous, that it had to be divided into two Volumes.

In this Vol. we give the "Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation," and, so far as we could collect them, the genealogies of the families which branched from that ancient stem; together with the territories possessed by the ancient Irish families in the twelfth century; a Chapter on the "English Invasion," and another on the "Cromwellian Devastation," of Ireland.

In Vol. II. we give the "Families in Ireland from the twelfth to the end of the sixteenth century," with the counties in which they, respectively, were located; the Names of the Settlers in Ireland under the "Plantation of Ulster;" the Names of the Adventurers who came into Ireland with the Cromwellian Settlement, or with the Revolution; the Names of the Huguenot and Palatine families which settled in Ireland; the "Most important families in Ireland, and the counties in which they were located, at the beginning of the seventeenth century;" the Genealogies of Anglo-Irish and other families which settled in Ireland since the English invasion; the Irish Brigades in the service of foreign nations; the papers contained in the Appendix to the Third Edition of our Irish Pedigrees, and in the Appendix to our Irish Landed Gentry; the "Opinions of the Press," from Newspapers and Periodicals in the Old and New World, etc.

A careful perusal of the Work will show that, in the wide field of our genealogical research, we have been unable to collect all the Irish and Anglo-Irish Pedigrees; but, we are satisfied that we have collected all of them that are preserved in our public archives, or that escaped the ravages of the Elizabethan Wars,[2] and the Strafford and Cromwellian devastations, in Ireland.

During the Wars of Queen Elizabeth some of the "new comers" settled in Ireland; many of them, in the time of Sir William Petty;[3] others of them, during the Ulster Plantation; others, during Strafford's Viceroyalty; others, during the Cromwellian, and others, during the Williamite, Confiscations.

The old Irish genealogies which are collected in this Work are carried down to the lineal representative of each family living when such family was deprived of its patrimony, to make room for the new settlers, according as each foreign migration [4] landed in Ireland; and some of them down to the present time; but most of the Anglo-Irish and Anglo-Norman genealogies by us recorded are brought down to the Commonwealth period, when the estates of those families were confiscated.

Members of many of the present Irish families will see, in one or other of the Lists given in No. 1, or No. 2 Appendix, contained in Vol. II. of this Edition, the names of their ancestors who first settled in Ireland:

And oh! it were a gallant deed

To show before Mankind

How every race and every creed

Might be by love combined;

Might be combined, yet not forget

The fountains whence they rose;

As, filled by many a rivulet

The stately Shannon flows.

While O'Clery brings most of the Irish genealogies contained in his Book down to A.D. 1636; MacFirbis, to 1666; and O'Ferrall's Linea Antiqua, to 1708, it is only in a few cases that, in any of those great works, the locality of any representative of an Irish family living at those respective periods is mentioned: possibly, because, under the Laws of Tanistry, the locality in which was situate each family patrimony in Ireland was in those times well known. To MacFirbis, however, we may look, so far as their genealogies are contained in his Book, for the lineal representatives of the Irish, Anglo-Irish, and Anglo-Norman families living when the Estates of the Irish "Papist Proprietors" and of the Irish "Delinquent Protestants" [5] were confiscated, under the Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland.

For the information respecting the Irish Brigades serving in France, Spain, Austria, the Spanish Netherlands, etc., contained in either Appendix to Vol. II., we are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. J. Casimir O'Meagher, of Mountjoy-square, Dublin; which, with untiring energy, Mr. O'Meagher compiled in the Archives [6] of the several countries to which they relate: in whose services the Irishmen mentioned in those Papers brought renown on their own native land. To the present representatives of those families, in whatever clime their lot is cast, those Papers will afford interesting information.

But, while in the Spanish Netherlands, and other European countries, Irishmen have shed lustre on their native country, we venture to say that nowhere and under no circumstances have they displayed more heroism, magnanimity, dauntless enterprise, genius, dignity, burning zeal, good citizenship, unsullied fidelity, and administrative power, than in the Service of America.[7] As to them in exile the Land of the "Stars and Stripes" had been a refuge and a home, for that Land our countrymen have with willing hearts fought, and bled, and died. Whenever disaster seemed to threaten the Great Western Republic, either from foreign power, or internal discord, Irishmen were the first to grasp their swords, in her defence, and the last to sheathe them; until her foes had been vanquished, and the smiles of peace had returned to brighten and beautify her, once more, through the length and breadth of her vast and God-favoured Empire. It is therefore that we in Ireland should feel proud of their exploits; and it is therefore that we ourself feel pleasure in herein recording the names mentioned in the Paper in the Appendix No. 2, headed "The Irish Brigades in the Service of America." In that Paper we give a List of the Officers in the Irish-American Brigades during the American War of 1861-1865, between the Northern and Southern States, on the Slave-Emancipation question; when, unhappily, the Federal Army [8] of the North was pitted against the Confederate Army of the South. That Federal Army was, it will be remembered, chiefly composed of Meagher's Irish Brigade and of Corcoran's Irish Legion (two distinct Brigades), besides several Regiments and many Companies in the "Union" Volunteers, coming from certain States of the Union, all of whom served in the Federal Army; but in the Confederate Army in that War were many distinguished Officers,[9] Irish by birth or descent, whose names, if we knew them, we would also herein gladly record. Among those were General "Stonewall" Jackson, General Patrick Ronayne-Cleburne; General (now United States Senator) Mahone, etc. In a future edition, however, we hope to be able to give the names of all the Irish Officers in the Confederate Army; together with the names of any Irishmen (by birth or descent) who at any time filled the Office of President of the United States of America, or of Governor of any State in the Union; or who in any other position in any of our Colonies shed lustre on their Nation and their Race.

And if God spares us, we shall give, in a future Edition of our "Irish Landed Gentry when Cromwell came," the names of all the Irish Landed Gentry in Ireland, A.D. 1641; and the names of the persons who in every county in Ireland succeeded to those Estates, or to any portions of them.

In the fervent hope that (see No. 81, p. 40, infra,) the relation which the lineal descent of the present Royal Family of England bears to the ancient Royal Stem of Ireland, would conduce to a kindly feeling on behalf of Her Gracious Majesty towards ourself and our bleeding country; we humbly forwarded to Queen Victoria a presentation copy of the Third Edition [10] of this Work; in pp. 40-44 of which that "lineal descent" is carefully traced, as it also is in pp. 37-41 of this Volume. It is needless to say that Her Majesty graciously accepted and acknowledged the presentation.

As the Book of Genesis and the Writings of the Apostles contain expressions and conceptions respecting the Creation, which cannot be clearly interpreted unless by the latest results of Geological Science, we give in pp. 1-32 of this Volume, a Chapter [11] on "The Creation," in which, guided by Geological laws, we have humbly ventured to interpret those expressions and conceptions without conflicting in any manner with the account of the Creation contained in the Sacred Volume! In our dutiful veneration for the Visible Head of the Church to which we belong, we respectfully forwarded anotherpresentation copy of that Edition also to Pope Leo XIII., for his gracious acceptance; earnestly requesting the consideration by His Holiness, not only of the views which we humbly propound in that Chapter, but also of the Chapter headed "The English Invasion of Ireland," in which it was stated, on the authorities therein mentioned, that Pope Adrian [12] IV., in the exercise of his Temporal Power, granted Ireland to King Henry II. of England. The chapter on "The English Invasion of Ireland" is also given in pp. 792-799 of this Volume. It was our privilege to receive from the Holy Father, per the Right Rev. Doctor Kirby, Bishop of Lita, and Rector of the Irish College in Rome (through whom the Presentation was made), the following kind and courteous reply:

"Rome, 30th December, 1881.

"Dear Sir,

"I had the pleasure to receive your esteemed letter of the 25th instant, which was followed by your Work on the 'Irish Pedigrees,' a day or two after. I hasten to inform you that I had the honour of an audience with the Holy Father on yesterday, and I availed myself of the occasion to present him with your Work, which he graciously received. I explained to him its object. He looked over it with interest, and said that he would have it placed in the Library. He was pleased to authorize me to send to you, together with his thanks for the Work, his Apostolic Benediction, which I trust will be a help and an impulse to you to continue to employ your superior talents for the advantage of our holy religion and country, in the production of works useful to both; thus meriting for yourself at the proper time the encomium and promise of Divine Wisdom: 'Qui elucidant me vitam aeternam habebunt.' Wishing you every success in your most laudable undertaking, and all the blessings and graces of this holy season,

"I am, yours sincerely,

"T. Kirby, Bishop of Lita, etc.

"John O'Hart, Esq.,

"Ringsend, Dublin."

It only remains for us to express our grateful acknowledgments to the late Sir Samuel Ferguson, LL.D., Q.C., and the Officers in his Department with whom we came in contact in the Public Eecord Office; to John K. Ingram, Esq., LL.D., the Librarian of Trinity College, and his obliging Assistants; to the Rev. M. H. Close, M.A., Major MacEniry, John T. Gilbert, Esq., F.E.S., and J. J. MacSweeney, Esq., all in the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin: for the uniform kindness and courtesy which we experienced from each and every of them during our tedious researches in their respective Institutions.

For other literary aid (see the Preface to Vol. II.) received from Alfred Webb., Esq., Dublin; Thomas O'Gorman, Esq., Sandymount, Dublin; C. J. Hubbard, Esq., United States, America; Rev. C. A. Agnew, Edinburgh; S. Smiles, Esq., London; Rev. George Hill, late Librarian, Queen's College, Belfast; William J. Simpson, Esq., Belfast; and James M'Carte, Esq., Liverpool, our best thanks are also due, and here respectfully tendered.

As this Work unveils the ancestors of many of the present Irish, Anglo-Irish, and Anglo-Norman families, of various shades of religious and political opinions, we have endeavoured in its pages to subserve no sect or party. And we beg to say that, while our Irish Pedigrees and our Irish Landed Gentry are necessarily national in character, there is nothing in them to wound the feelings of Celt or Saxon, Catholic or Protestant, Liberal or Conservative.

Hardinge (see his "Epitome" MS., in the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin), in his "Circumstances attending the Civil War in Ireland in 1641-1652," truly says:

"In the rise and progress of Empires, as naturally as in the lives of men, there are events concerning which the biographer or historian would willingly remain silent, did not the salutary lessons to be derived from them demand publication."

That sentence we freely adopt, and we heartily endorse the sentiment it contains. We shall rejoice that we did not remain "silent," if the publication of the facts which we record in this Work will conduce to the removal of the causes for discontent which have long distracted our afflicted country:

While History's Muse the memorial was keeping,

Of all that the dark hand of Destiny weaves,

Beside her the Genius of Erin stood weeping,

For hers was the story that blotted the leaves.

JOHN O'HART.

Ringsend School, Ringsend,

Dublin: December, 1887.

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NOTES

[1] Bearings: A drawing or illustration of any of those Armorial Bearings can, at a moderate charge, be procured from Mr. William T. Parkes, of 12 Fleet-street, Dublin.

[2] Wars: For a description of the state of Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, see Sir Charles Gavan Duffy's "Bird's-Eye View of Ireland."

[3] Petty: It may interest our readers to know that Sir William Petty was the first to introduce into Ireland what is known as Quit Rent: that is, one penny per acre (or 10s. per quarter or 120 acres) of land held by each of the then Irish Proprietors, to be paid to Queen Elizabeth "for ever," in consideration for which each Proprietor was made to believe that he would be confirmed in his possessions, and protected by the Government against all breakers of the law. When, however, through Petty's Survey, the Government became cognizant of the extent of land possessed by each Irish Catholic Proprietor, there was almost in every case a wholesale confiscation of their Estates; the rulers of provinces, counties, or districts in Ireland largely sharing in the result of those confiscations.

[4] Migration: The first English migration came into Ireland in 1168, in the reign of King Henry II. From that period down to the end of the reign of Henry VIII. there were seventy-eight such migrations.—See Sections 3 and 4, under the heading "New Divisions of Ireland, and the New Settlers," in the Appendix, No. 1, in Vol. II.

[5] Delinquent Protestants: By this designation were known the loyal Protestants who sided, or were suspected of sympathy, with their King, the unfortunate Charles I.

[6] Archives: The papers, above mentioned, treat on the "Irish Brigade in the Service of France;" "The Irish Legion;" "Irish Endowments in Austria;" "Irishmen who served in Austria: Old Army Lists;" "Irishmen serving in Austria;" Modern Army Lists; a "List of Irishmen who have served in the Spanish Army;" and a "List of Persons of Irish Origin, enjoying Honours and Emoluments in Spain," in 1881.

[7] America: For the "Early Irish Settlers in America," see the Celtic Magazine (New York: Halligan and Cassidy,) for April and May, 1883; which will well repay perusal.

[8] Army: Besides the Irish Brigade and the Irish Legion in the Federal Army, there were several Regiments distinctively Irish in different States, and many Irish Companies; besides many Irish Officers whose Companies were partly Irish, such as: The 37th New York Volunteers ("Irish Rifles"). The 40th do. do. ("Tammany Regiment"). Colonel Cass's Pennsylvania Regiment. Colonel Mulligan's Chicago Regiment; etc. So that the names of the Irish Officers in the service of America would, even with their brief records, fill a good-sized volume; not to speak of the Irish Officers who held command in the "Rebel" or Confederate Army. We might observe that every full Regiment had about thirty-five officers.

[9] Officers: The names of the Officers in Meagher's Irish Brigade are taken from Captain Conyngham's "Irish-American Brigade and its Campaigns," published in 1866; and the names of the Officers in Corcoran's Irish Legion are taken from the Official Report of the Adjutant-General of the State of New York. If in either Return it be found that we omitted any name which ought to be inserted, we beg to say that such omission was unintentional.

There is, we find, a large number of Irish Officers at present in the Regular Army of the United States of America.

[10] Edition: A copy of that as well as a copy of this edition, may be seen in the Library of the House of Commons, and in the Library of the House of Lords, London; as well as in the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C.; etc.

[11] Chapter: It may interest our readers to look through that chapter in its entirety; for, without entering into any religious controversy whatever on the subject, we venture to say that it will help to throw light on the Edenic period of Man's existence before his first sin!

[12] Adrian: On the vexed question of Pope Adrian's Bull, which was dated from Rome, A.D. 1155, it is sometimes urged that the said Bull was a forgery: because, it is alleged, Pope Adrian IV. was not at all in Rome in that year, for that he was in exile at Beneventum, on account of a revolt caused by the arch-innovator Arnold of Brescia. But it will be seen by reference to the following authorities, which a friend of ours has brought under our notice, that Adrian IV. was, in the plenitude of his temporal power, in Rome, A.D. 1155: In a life of this Pope, written by Cardinal Aragonius, which is to be found in Muratori's "Rerum Italicarum Scriptores," Tom. III., Part I., p. 441, it is stated that, so far from Arnold being able to drive the Pope out of Rome, his Holiness laid an interdict on the city in the very middle of Holy Week. The Romans were so terrified that they drove Arnold out of the city. Frederick Barbarossa then seized him, and sent him back a prisoner to the Pope, who condemned him to be hanged. An account of his execution, in the month of May, will be found in Sismondi's "Republiques Italiennes," T. I., p. 316, Ed. Brussels, 1826. Aragonios gives an account of the Pope's proceedings during the summer of 1155: as, for instance, his crowning, as Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, the celebrated Hohenstaufen, which took place in the month of June. In the autumn of 1155, Adrian IV. went to Beneventum for the purpose of absolving William, King of Sicily, from his excommunication, and receiving his homage (see page 445, Muratori, above mentioned). In fact, Pope Adrian IV. was never so powerful at Rome as he was in that year; having the support of the Emperor, as well as that of his own troops. For further information, the reader is referred to the great Benedictine Work: "Histoire des Gaules et de la France," T. xv., p. 661.


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