The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps)

By

John Mitchel

1876

CHAPTER I.

Introduction—Address of the American Congress "To the People of Ireland," in 1775—Satistics and Condition of Ireland—Ireland in 1843—O'Connell—The Repeal Debate in the Corporation of Dublin—The "Monster Meetings" in 1843—Opinion in the English Parliament—Sir Robert Peel's Declaration in Answer to Mr Bernal [Osborne]

CHAPTER II.

"Repeal Year" (1843)—Resources of O'Connell—Clare Election, and Catholic Emancipation—Shiel—"Young Ireland"—Davis, Dillon, Duffy—The "Nation"—Resources of the English—Disarming Laws

CHAPTER III.

"The Repeal Year" still—O'Brien's Motion—Arms Bill—Sir Edward Sugden—Dismissed Magistrates—Arbitrators—More Monster Meetings

CHAPTER IV.

O'Connell's Oratory—Its Themes—The Whigs—Davis and the"Nation"—The Young Agitators—Tara Meeting—Council of Three Hundred—The Queen's Speech against Repeal—Great Meeting at Mullaghmast—Meeting at Clontarf forbidden

CHAPTER V.

Determination of the Enemy—Clontarf—The "Projected Massacre"—Arrest of O'Connell and the "Conspirators"—Opening of "Conciliation Hall"—O'Brien joins the Repealers—Preparation for the Trials

CHAPTER VI.

The Trial—System of "Selecting" a Jury in Ireland—Verdict against O'Connell—Debate in Parliament on the State of Ireland—Operation of the Arms Act—Sentence and Imprisonment of O'Connell

CHAPTER VII.

O'Connell in Prison—Davis; his Misgivings—Reversal of the Judgment—Whig Law Lords—Rejoicings in Dublin—The People disappointed—Federalism—O'Brien

CHAPTER VIII.

Approach of the Famine, in 1845—Repeal prospects after the liberation of O'Connell—Irish Produce exported to England in 1844—Arms and Detectives in return for it—"Landlord and Tenant" Commission—Ejectment Legislation—Condition of Ireland in 1845—The Devon Commission—The Tenant-Right of Ulster—Conspiracy of Landlords and Legislators—Sir Robert Peel

CHAPTER IX.

Land-Tenure Report—O'Brien—Eighty-Two Club—Grey Porter—A National Militia—President Polk and Orgeon Territory—Robert Tyler—Colleges Bill—MacNevin—James Haughton—John O'Connell and General Jackson—Lord Stanley's Bill—"Surplus Population"—Death of Davis—Famine

CHAPTER X.

Davis; his influence, aim, and labours—His opinion of "Imposing Demonstrations"—His Letters—His Death—Fate of MacNevin

CHAPTER XI.

Duties of Government—Alms—Playfair and Lindley—Memorial of the Corporation and Citizens of Dublin—Lord Heytesbury—O'Connell's proposals—O'Brien's—Meeting of Parliament—Coercion Bill—Repeal of the Corn Laws—Relief

CHAPTER XII.

Loss of the Irish Crops—Accounts between England and Ireland—Rapid export of Irish harvest and cattle—Sir Robert Peel's "Remedial Measures"—O'Brien in Parliament—English Press on "Alms"—Sir Robert Peel's two weapons—Repeal Association—Resistance to the Coercion Bill—Extermination in Connaught—The "Nation" and Young Ireland—Another State Prosecution—Change of Ministry

CHAPTER XIII.

"Relief of Famine"—Importations of grain—Imprisonment of O'Brien—Destruction of the Repeal Association—The Labour-rate Act—More Poor Law Extermination—Recruiting

CHAPTER XIV.

Labour-rate Act—Digging holes—England begs for us—Out-door Relief—"Fast and humiliation"—Quarter-acre clause—The Calculations of "Political Circles"—Two millions of Celtic corpses—America baffled—Parish coffins—Repudiation of Alms by the Nation

CHAPTER XV.

Death of O'Connell—His character—Arrangements for the next year's famine—Emigration—Report of a "Select Committee"—A New Coercion Act—The Crisis approaches

CHAPTER XVI.

Lord Clarendon, Viceroy—Subterranean agencies of Government—Monahan, Attorney-General—Galway Election

CHAPTER XVII.

Dublin during the Famine—"Young Ireland"—Alarm of the Moneyed Classes—"S. G. O."—Sudden meeting of Parliament—New Coercion Act—Differences in the Irish Confederation—Break up in the "Nation Office"—O'Brien—The United Irishman

CHAPTER XVIII.

The "United Irishman" Newspaper—Nature of the enterprise—Effect of the French Revolution of February, 1848—Situation of the Government—Examples

CHAPTER XIX.

March, 1848—The French Revolution—Waterford Election—Aggregate Meeting in Dublin—Prosecution of O'Brien, Meagher, and Mitchel—O'Brien in the English Parliament—The "Treason-Felony" Act—Trial of O'Brien and Meagher for "Sedition"—The "United Irishman"—Trials for illegal drilling—Prosecution for "Sedition" abandoned—Arrest of Mitchel for "Treason-Felony

CHAPTER XX.

Rage of the British Press—Protestant Repeal Associations—Lord Clarendon's Manoeuvres among the Orangemen—Proclamations against "Communists"—The Chartists and Irish in England—Letter to the Protestants of the North—Prosecution

CHAPTER XXI.

Juries in Ireland—Whig professions of impartiality—In the Dock—Holmes—Challenging the array—Closing Scene—The Clubs restrained—Meagher's Account—My last week in Ireland

CHAPTER XXII.

Triumph of the Enemy—The "Irish Tribune"—The Editors—Habeas Corpus suspended—Numerous Arrests—O'Brien takes to the Country—Carrick—Killenaule—Ballingarry—Dispersion of the people—No Insurrection

CHAPTER XXIII.

Arrest of O'Brien; of Meagher; of MacManus, etc.—Trials—Excuse for more Jury-packing—Excitement in England—Trial of Chartists—Special Commission in Clonmel—Trial of O'Brien for High Treason—Sentence of Death—Trials of MacManus, O'Donohoe, and Meagher—Commutation of the Sentences of Death—Plan for a New "Plantation of Ireland"—Systematic vilification of the Celtic Irish by English writers

CHAPTER XXIV.

Consummation of the "Conquest"—The Queen's Speech in 1849—More Coercion—More Poor-law—Depopulation: condition of the people, as described by Mr Duffy in 1849—Lord John Russell's "Rate-in-aid "—The "Incumbered Estates Act"—Result to Ireland of Incumbered Estates Court—Queen's Visit to Ireland in 1849: Popular feeling in Dublin suppressed by the Police—Ireland "tranquil," "improving," and "prosperous"—Statistics—Recapitulation—Conclusion