Taken from A History of Ireland by Eleanor Hull

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[1] C. Gavan Duffy, Young Ireland (1896), pp. 29, 31.

[2] Ibid., p. 53.

[3] Disraeli's account of O'Connell's last appearance in the House; Cusack, Life of O'Connell, ii, 212.

[4] C. Gavan Duffy, My Life in Two Hemispheres, i, 136, 138, 140-141.

[5] Speech in Parliament, July 4, 1843, quoted in Gavan Duffy, Young Ireland, i, 157-158.

[6] C. Gavan Duffy, My Life in Two Hemispheres (1898), i, 246.

[7] Ibid., i, 249.

[8] Official Report of the Parnell Commission, vol. vii.

[9] Cahirmoyle Correspondence, Duffy to O'Brien, quoted in Duffy, op. cit., i, 259n.

[10] Duffy, op. cit., i, 261-262 and note.

[11] See the account of Mitchel's trial in Duffy, Four Years of Irish History, and of Duffy's own trial in My Life in Two Hemispheres, i, 301-335.

[12] Duffy, League of the North and South (1886), pp. 387-388.

[13] G. P. MacDonell, in Bryce, Two Centuries of Irish History, p. 448.

[14] Dr. Croke in Duffy's League of the North and South (1886), p. 363.

[15] Ibid., pp. 376-377.

[16] Ibid., p. 364 n.

[17] Times, May 30, 1850, quoted in R. Barry O'Brien, Fifty Years of Concessions to Ireland, ii, 262-264.

[18] J. O'Leary, Recollections of Fenians and Fenianism (1896), i, 101.

[19] Proceedings of the first National Convention of the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood, Chicago, 1863, quoted in R. Barry O'Brien, op. cit., ii, 210-211.

[20] Justin MacCarthy, A History of our own Times (1880), vol. iv, ch. liii. pp. 122 seq.; Tynan, History of the Invincibles.

[21] Luby, though sentenced to twenty years penal servitude, was released in 1871 and went to New York; O'Leary returned in 1885. He died in Dublin in 1907, respected by all parties.

[22] It was in commemoration of these men that T. D. Sullivan wrote the verses "God Save Ireland." Four passers-by were killed and a hundred and twenty were wounded in the Clerkenwell explosion.

[23] See Gladstone's speech in the House of Commons, March 30, 1868, and that of May 31, 1869.

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